In this chapter and the next we deal with what can be termed “negative global flows.” As we saw in Chapter 1, the idea of flows owes a large debt to Zygmunt Bauman and his thinking on the liquid society (as well as to the work of others including Arjun Appadurai [Chapter 7]). This analysis now owes a further debt to Bauman (2006: 96) for his discussion of “negative globalization.” We will discuss this idea at the beginning of the next chapter where it has greater and more specific relevance to the issues discussed there. While Bauman does not discuss environmental issues under the heading of negative globalization, it is clear that adverse environmental flows are among the most, if not the most, negative aspects of globalization. 1

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