Chapter 3

Operational aspects of distribution systems with massive DER penetrations

Tomonobu Senjyu*
Abdul Motin Howlader***    Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan**    Postdoctoral Fellow University of Hawaii, Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii


Distributed generators (DGs) encompass a huge economical and environmental potential, especially if these DGs are based on renewable energy sources. However, high penetration of DGs into distribution systems can trigger voltage deviations beyond the statutory range, and can reverse power flow toward the substation transformer. Consequently, DGs can increase energy losses if they are not well controlled. Coincidentally, the demand of plug-in electric ...

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