atomicity When applied to an operation on primitive data, indicates that other threads that might access the data might see the data as it exists before the operation occurs or after the operation has completed, but may never see an intermediate value of the data.
canonicalization Reducing the input to its equivalent simplest known form.
class variable “A class variable is a field declared using the keyword
static within a class declaration, or with or without the keyword
static within an interface declaration. A class variable is created when its class or interface is prepared and is initialized to a default value. The class variable effectively ceases to exist when its class or interface is unloaded” [JLS 2013, §4.12.3, “Kinds of Variables”]. ...