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Korn Shell: Unix and Linux Programming Manual, Third Edition, The by Anatole Olczak

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Misc Substitution

$(command) replace with the standard output of command
$((arithmetic-expression) replace with the result of arithmetic-expression
$(<file) replace with the contents of file
`command ` replace with the standard output of command
replace with $HOME
user replace with the home directory of user
∼– replace with $OLDPWD (previous directory)
∼+ replace with $PWD (current directory)

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