3

PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES: A SURVEY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

FORTRAN, a computer language, was developed in mid-1950s. Nowadays, there are hundreds of programming languages available in the market. However, only a small number of them are popular among the programmers. For example, FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, Pascal, ‘C’, ‘C++’, PROLOG, JAVA, etc. are very popular computer languages.

Since a programming language is responsible for human-system communication, it consists of symbols, characters, and grammar rules which allow programmers to communicate with computers. As discussed earlier in Chapter 1, a programming language can be defined as “a language used for expressing a set of computer instructions”. The set of instructions is called a program.

In fact, ...

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