O'Reilly logo

Oracle SQL*Plus: The Definitive Guide, 2nd Edition by Jonathan Gennick

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Creating and Loading the Sample Tables

Many of the examples in this book, particularly the reporting examples, have been developed against an example database for an employee time-tracking system. It’s a fairly simplistic database, containing only three tables, but it’s enough to illustrate everything I talk about in this book. You may or may not wish to create this database for yourself. Creating the database will allow you to try all the examples in this book exactly as they are shown. If you choose not to create and load the sample database, at least familiarize yourself with the data model. Glance at the sample data, which are reproduced later in this section. If you have looked at the model and at the data, you shouldn’t have any trouble following and understanding the examples in this book.

Tip

Every numbered example in this book is provided in a set of example scripts that you can download from the catalog page for this book at http://oreilly.com/catalog/orsqlplus2. Example 1-1 is in the file named ex1-1.sql, Example 1-2 is in the file named ex1-2.sql, and so forth.

The Data Model

Figure 1-3 shows an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) for the sample database.

The sample database
Figure 1-3. The sample database

As you can see from the ERD, there are only three entities: EMPLOYEE, PROJECT, and PROJECT_HOURS. Table 1-2 gives a brief description of each entity.

Table 1-2. Entity descriptions

Entity name

Description

EMPLOYEE

Contains one record for each employee. This record contains the employee’s name, hire date, termination date, and billing rate. The primary key is an arbitrary employee ID number. The termination date for current employees is set to NULL.

PROJECT

Contains one record for each project that an employee may work on. Contains the project name and budget. The primary key is an arbitrary project ID number.

PROJECT_HOURS

Each time an employee logs time to a project, a record is generated in this table. The record contains the number of hours charged against the project as well as the total dollar amount charged. The dollar amount charged is calculated at the time the record is created because an employee’s billing rate may fluctuate over time. The primary key is a combination key made up of an employee ID, a project ID, and the date.

The number of employees and projects is fairly small. However, a large amount of data in the PROJECT_HOURS table allow for the generation of multiple-page reports, which are needed to demonstrate pagination, page headings, page footings, and summarization.

The Tables

This section shows the column descriptions, including column datatypes and lengths, for each of the three example tables. This is the same information you would get using SQL*Plus’s DESCRIBE command.

EMPLOYEE table

Name                            Null?    Type
 ------------------------------- -------- -------------
 EMPLOYEE_ID                     NOT NULL NUMBER
 EMPLOYEE_NAME                            VARCHAR2(40)
 EMPLOYEE_HIRE_DATE                       DATE
 EMPLOYEE_TERMINATION_DATE                DATE
 EMPLOYEE_BILLING_RATE                    NUMBER(5,2)

PROJECT table

Name                            Null?    Type
 ------------------------------- -------- -------------
 PROJECT_ID                      NOT NULL NUMBER(4)
 PROJECT_NAME                             VARCHAR2(40)
 PROJECT_BUDGET                           NUMBER(9,2)

PROJECT_HOURS table

Name                            Null?    Type
 ------------------------------- -------- -----------
 PROJECT_ID                      NOT NULL NUMBER(4)
 EMPLOYEE_ID                     NOT NULL NUMBER
 TIME_LOG_DATE                   NOT NULL DATE
 HOURS_LOGGED                             NUMBER(5,2)
 DOLLARS_CHARGED                          NUMBER(8,2)

The Data

This section shows the data contained in the three example tables.

EMPLOYEE table

    ID Name                 Hire Date   Term Date   Billing Rate
------ -------------------- ----------- ----------- ------------
   101 Marusia Churai       15-Nov-1961                   169.00
   102 Mykhailo Hrushevsky  16-Sep-1964 05-May-2004       135.00
   104 Pavlo Virsky         29-Dec-1987 01-Apr-2004        99.00
   105 Mykola Leontovych    15-Jun-2004                   121.00
   107 Lesia Ukrainka       02-Jan-2004                    45.00
   108 Pavlo Chubynsky      01-Mar-1994 15-Nov-2004       220.00
   110 Ivan Mazepa          04-Apr-2004 30-Sep-2004        84.00
   111 Taras Shevchenko     23-Aug-1976                   100.00
   112 Igor Sikorsky        15-Nov-1961 04-Apr-2004        70.00
   113 Mykhailo Verbytsky   03-Mar-2004 31-Oct-2004       300.00

PROJECT table

    ID Project Name                               Budget
------ ----------------------------------- -------------
  1001 Corporate Web Site                   1,912,000.00
  1002 Enterprise Resource Planning System  9,999,999.00
  1003 Accounting System Implementation       897,000.00
  1004 Data Warehouse Maintenance             294,000.00
  1005 VPN Implementation                     415,000.00

PROJECT_HOURS table

The PROJECT_HOURS table contains the following information, repeated for each employee:

Proj ID Emp ID Log Date    Hours Charged Amt Charged
------- ------ ----------- ------------- -----------
   1001    101 01-Jan-2004          1.00      169.00
   1003    101 01-Jan-2004          3.00      507.00
   1005    101 01-Jan-2004          5.00      845.00
   1002    101 01-Feb-2004          7.00    1,183.00
   1004    101 01-Feb-2004          1.00      169.00
   1001    101 01-Mar-2004          3.00      507.00
   1003    101 01-Mar-2004          5.00      845.00
   1005    101 01-Mar-2004          7.00    1,183.00
   1002    101 01-Apr-2004          1.00      169.00
   1004    101 01-Apr-2004          3.00      507.00
   1001    101 01-May-2004          5.00      845.00
   1003    101 01-May-2004          7.00    1,183.00
   1005    101 01-May-2004          1.00      169.00
   1002    101 01-Jun-2004          3.00      507.00
   1004    101 01-Jun-2004          5.00      845.00
   1001    101 01-Jul-2004          7.00    1,183.00
   1003    101 01-Jul-2004          1.00      169.00
   1005    101 01-Jul-2004          3.00      507.00
   1002    101 01-Aug-2004          5.00      845.00
   1004    101 01-Aug-2004          7.00    1,183.00
   1001    101 01-Sep-2004          1.00      169.00
   1003    101 01-Sep-2004          3.00      507.00
   1005    101 01-Sep-2004          5.00      845.00
   1002    101 01-Oct-2004          7.00    1,183.00
   1004    101 01-Oct-2004          1.00      169.00
   1001    101 01-Nov-2004          3.00      507.00
   1003    101 01-Nov-2004          5.00      845.00
   1005    101 01-Nov-2004          7.00    1,183.00
   1002    101 01-Dec-2004          1.00      169.00
   1004    101 01-Dec-2004          3.00      507.00

The detail is the same for each employee. They all work the same hours on all projects. There are enough PROJECT_HOURS records to produce some reasonable summary reports, as you will see in Chapters Chapter 5 through Chapter 7.

Loading the Sample Data

In order to load the sample data you will need an Oracle username and password. If you are accessing a remote database (often the case for people using Windows), you will also need a net service name. You must have the necessary privileges and quotas to create tables in the database you are using. Specifically, you must have the following system privileges:

  • CREATE SESSION

  • ALTER SESSION

  • CREATE TABLE

  • CREATE VIEW

  • CREATE TRIGGER

  • CREATE PROCEDURE

  • CREATE SYNONYM

  • CREATE SEQUENCE

  • CREATE TYPE (Oracle8 and higher)

Your DBA can help you with any of these items. Once you have a username and password and have been granted the necessary privileges, you can create the sample tables and data by following these four steps:

  1. Download and unzip (or untar) the script files.

  2. Start SQL*Plus.

  3. Log into your Oracle database.

  4. Run the bld_db.sql script file.

If you are new to SQL*Plus and are completely uncertain how to start it in your particular environment, you should first read the section Section 2.2 in Chapter 2. Once you know how to start SQL*Plus, you can come back here and run the script to create the sample tables and fill them with data.

Step 1: Download and unzip the script files

The SQL scripts to create the tables and data used for the examples in this book can be downloaded from O’Reilly’s web site:

http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/orsqlplus2

Download either SQLPlusData.zip or SQLPlusData.tar.gz, depending on whether you prefer to work with zip files (Windows) or tar files (Linux/Unix). Extract the contents of the file that you download into a directory on your hard disk.

Tip

You can extract the script files into any directory you wish, but if you’re a Windows user you may want to avoid using a directory with spaces in its name, or with spaces in any of the parent directory names. Some releases of SQL*Plus throw errors when confronted with path and filenames containing spaces.

Step 2: Start SQL*Plus

SQL*Plus has three variations: command-line, Windows GUI, and iSQL*Plus. Unless you know a bit about SQL*Plus already and know how to connect to iSQL*Plus in your environment, you’ll find it easiest to use command-line SQL*Plus to load the example data. For Windows users, this means opening a command-prompt window, which I know is something not often done under Windows.

Once you have a command prompt, navigate to the directory into which you unpacked the example scripts. Make that directory your current working directory. For example, under Linux:

oracle@gennick02:~> cd sqlplus/ExampleData
oracle@gennick02:~/sqlplus/ExampleData>

or under Windows:

C:\Documents and Settings\JonathanGennick>cd c:\sqlplus\ExampleData

C:\sqlplus\ExampleData>

Next, invoke SQL*Plus using one of the following forms:

sqlplus username
sqlplus username@net_service_name

Use the first form if you’re running SQL*Plus on the same computer as the Oracle instance. Use the second form if you’re accessing Oracle over a network connection.

Tip

Prior to the Oracle8i Database release, the name of the SQL*Plus executable under Windows varied from one release to the next and followed the pattern plus80 (Oracle8), plus73 (Oracle7.3), etc. Thankfully, Oracle has recovered from this bit of insanity.

Step 3: Log into your Oracle database

After starting SQL*Plus, you’ll be prompted for a password. Enter the password corresponding to your username, and you should be connected to your database:

oracle@gennick02:~/sqlplus/ExampleScripts> sqlplus sql_dude

SQL*Plus: Release 10.1.0.2.0 - Production on Fri Apr 9 19:13:44 2004

Copyright (c) 1982, 2004, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Enter password:

Connected to:
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.1.0.2.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options

SQL>

After you enter your password, you should see a message beginning with “Connected to:”, after which you should land at the SQL> prompt. If you have trouble logging in, ask your DBA for help. If you are the DBA, then it’s “Physician, heal thyself!”

Warning

You may know that SQL*Plus allows you to enter your password on the command line. Avoid doing that. Many Linux and Unix systems make your command line visible to all users on the system. Don’t give your password away by typing it on the command line. Let SQL*Plus prompt you for it instead.

Step 4: Run the bld_db.sql script file

The final step is to run the bld_db.sql script file, which is one of the files in the ZIP archive you downloaded in step 1. To do that, simply use the @ command as shown below:

SQL> @bld_db

Ideally, your current working directory will be the directory containing the file. If that’s not the case, you’ll need to specify the full directory path to the script:

SQL> @c:\sqlplus\ExampleData\bld_db

After you type one of these commands and press Enter, you’ll be prompted to confirm your intention to create and populate the example tables:

SQL> @bld_db

This script creates the tables and sample data needed
to run the examples in the SQL*Plus book.

Do you wish to continue (Y/N)? Y

Respond by entering Y or N and pressing Enter again. In this example, I’ve responded in the affirmative with Y.

Tip

If you make any mistakes in input while running the bld_db.sql script, the script will simply end. You’ll get a message telling you to rerun the script and answer correctly. SQL*Plus is incapable of repeatedly asking you to retry bad input. A graceful exit is the most you can hope for.

Next, you’ll be asked whether you wish to drop the tables before creating them:

You have the option of dropping the sample
tables before creating them. This is useful
if you have previously created the sample
tables, and are recreating them in order to
reload the original data.

Do you wish to DROP the tables first (Y/N)? N

This option to first drop the sample tables is convenient if you have loaded them before and wish to reload them quickly. If this is your first time running this script, you should answer this question with N. If you have loaded the tables previously, and you know that they exist now, then you should answer with Y.

Now you can just sit back and watch while the script creates the example tables and populates them with data. You’ll see progress messages such as these:

Creating employee table...

Creating project table...

Creating project_hours table...

Creating projects...

Creating Employees...

Creating employee time log entries for 2004...


Thank-you for loading the sample data!
Please press ENTER.

The entire load process should take less than a minute. When the load is complete, you will be asked to press Enter one final time. Be sure to do that! Then you can use the EXIT command to leave SQL*Plus and return to your operating system command prompt:

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition 
Release 10.1.0.2.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options
oracle@gennick02:~/sqlplus/ExampleData>

Now that you have loaded the sample data, you can proceed with the book and try out the examples as you go. Enjoy!

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required