**Appendixes**

**B.** Additional Tests for Zeros of a Polynomial Function

**A. Complex Numbers**

**A.1** Arithmetic Operations and Properties

**INTRODUCTION** No one person “invented” complex numbers, but controversies surrounding the use of these numbers existed in the sixteenth century. In their quest to solve polynomial equations by formulas involving radicals early dabblers in mathematics were forced to admit that there were other kinds of numbers besides positive integers. Equations such as *x*^{2} − 2*x* + 2 = 0 and *x*^{3} + 6*x*^{2} + 11*x* = 0 that yielded “solutions” and caused particular consternation within the community ...

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