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Protective Relaying, 4th Edition by CRC Press

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Chapter 7

System-Grounding Principles

7.1 Introduction

Power system grounding is very important, particularly because the large majority of faults involve grounding. Thus, it has a significant effect on the protection of all the components of the power system. The principal purposes of grounding are to minimize potential transient overvoltages to comply with local, state, and national codes for personnel safety requirements and to assist in the rapid detection and isolation of the trouble or fault areas.

A basic review of system grounding is in order, together with its fundamental technology and a general evaluation of the methods. There are four types: (1) ungrounded, (2) high impedance, (3) low impedance, and (4) effective or solid grounding. ...

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