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Quality Code: Software Testing Principles, Practices, and Patterns by Stephen Vance

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Shades of Testing

Testing is a monochromatic but varied discipline. Black-, white-, and gray-box testing frequent the vocabulary. Black-box testing aims to test the software based on the exposed functionality and external contract. On the other hand, white-box testing verifies the software with full knowledge of the internals. Somewhere in the middle of the spectrum, gray-box testing has been represented as black-box testing with educated guesswork about the internals or as white box-testing constrained by the portions of the internal knowledge that could be reasonably inferred or expected.

A desire to minimize the coupling between our tests and our code motivates this graduated taxonomy. If we only test what is externally promised by our objects, ...

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