6 Innovation Culture in Organizations

6.1. Introduction: recent developments in the concept of innovation

Radical innovations shape the great changes in the world while incremental innovations continuously fuel economic change [SCH 34]. Innovation is one of the few business concepts that everyone can see the value of [MID 12]; it is seen as a contributing factor for strengthening the competitiveness of an industry, for meeting customers’ expectations, creating skilled jobs and motivating employees. Regardless of the analytical framework chosen, liberal or not, including solidarity principles or not, globalist or not, only innovation seems to be able to reconcile social and economic approaches to economic growth [LEM 06]. In particular, it is considered an essential attribute to save Western industry [MID 12].

However, the very concept of innovation has evolved considerably over the last 30 years. To define innovation, characterize it and monitor its evolution, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has published the Oslo Manual [OEC 92, OEC 97, OEC 05]. The first two editions (1992 and 1997) focused mainly on product and process technological innovation. In 1997, however, the concept of non-technological innovation was introduced. Finally, the third edition, dating from 2005, considers four categories of innovation in its own right: product, process, organizational and marketing innovation. Moreover, even the product innovation sector goes far beyond ...

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