Distribution Automation Equipment
Modern electric power systems are supplied by large central generators that feed power into a high voltage interconnected transmission network. The power, often transmitted over long distances, is then passed down through a series of distribution transformers to final circuits for delivery to customers (Figure 6.1, also refer to Plate 1).
Operation of the generation and transmission systems is monitored and controlled by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These link the various elements through communication networks (for example, microwave and fibre optic circuits) and connect the transmission substations and generators to a manned control centre that maintains system security and facilitates integrated operation. In larger power systems, regional control centres serve an area, with communication links to adjacent area control centres. In addition to this central control, all the generators use automatic local governor and excitation control. Local controllers are also used in some transmission circuits for voltage control and power flow control, for example, using phase shifters (sometimes known as quadrature boosters).
Traditionally, the distribution network has been passive with limited communication between elements. Some local automation functions are used such as on-load tap changers and shunt capacitors for voltage control and circuit breakers or auto-reclosers for fault management. These controllers ...