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Solar Energy Engineering by Soteris A. Kalogirou

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Chapter five

Solar Water Heating Systems

Perhaps the most popular application of solar systems is for domestic water heating. The popularity of these systems is based on the fact that relatively simple systems are involved and solar water heating systems are generally viable. This category of solar systems belongs to the low-temperature heat applications.

The world’s commercial low-temperature heat consumption is estimated to be about 10 EJ per year for hot water production, equivalent to 6 trillion m2 of collector area (Turkenburg, 2000). In 2005, about 140 million m2 of solar thermal collector area were in operation around the world, which is only 2.3% of the potential (Philibert, 2005).

A solar water heater is a combination of a solar collector ...

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