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Sustainability Indicators in Practice

Book Description

The goal of sustainable development is to meet the socio-economic and environmental objectives without comprising the needs of future generations. Since the Rio Summit of 1992, the concept of sustainability has captured our imaginations and aspirations and efforts to develop its indicators have increased. A range of sustainability indicators have been developed within various socio-economic, environmental and cultural contexts- including biodiversity, economy, energy, water, land use and transport. Sustainability indicators are widespread in international development arena. They have become popularized among governments, non-governmental organizations, private sector and the wider public.

Based on multiple cases across the world, this book explores opportunities and challenges associated with the practical application of sustainability indicators. The book reflects diversity of professionals of inter-disciplinary backgrounds covering contemporary issues within different socio-economic and environmental contexts. Each chapter presents practical examples of the merits and challenges of using sustainability indicators and draws conclusions and lessons learned. The book targets a range of audience from students, academics to development practitioners and policy-makers.

The two editors of this book: Dr. Agnieszka Ewa Latawiec and Dr. Dorice Agol are inter-disciplinary scientists who both have experience in research at the environmental conservation and development nexus.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Foreword
  7. References
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Cover photo – Easter Island
  10. Introduction - Why Sustainability Indicators In Practice?
    1. 1 From Rio To Rio – A Short History Of Sustainability Indicators At The International Level
      1. 1.1 The First Earth Summit And Aftermath
      2. 1.2 Advances Of Rio +20 – Promise And Disappointment
    2. 2 Sustainability Indicators Today
      1. 2.1 Indicators In Policy, Private Sector And Science
    3. 3 Why Sustainability Indicators In Practice?
    4. 4 Contents
    5. References
  11. 1 What Are Sustainability Indicators For?
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Components And Interpretations Of Sustainability
    3. 1.3 Why Do We Need Sustainability Indicators?
    4. 1.4 What Characterizes ‘Good’ And ‘Effective’ Sustainability Indicators?
    5. 1.5 Conclusions
    6. References
  12. 2 Understanding Indicators And Monitoring For Sustainability In The Context Of Complex Social-Ecological Systems
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Complex Adaptive Systems: The Whole Is Larger Than The Sum Of Its Parts
      1. 2.2.1 Social-Ecological Systems
    3. 2.3 How Can Social-Ecological Systems Thinking Help In The Design Of Sustainability Indicators?
    4. 2.4 Sustainability Indicators As Interdependent Components Of The Social-Ecological Systems They Are Designed To Measure
      1. 2.4.1 Indicators And The Changing Nature Of Value: The Case Of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
      2. 2.4.2 Towards Alternative Measures Of Sustainable Human Prosperity
    5. 2.5 Conclusions
    6. References
  13. 3 Biodiversity Indicators And Monitoring For Ecological Management
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 The Context And Purpose Of Biodiversity Monitoring
      1. 3.2.1 Why Should We Be Worried About Biodiversity Monitoring In The First Place?
      2. 3.2.2 A Simple Framework For Biodiversity Monitoring As A Practical Aid To Ecosystem Management
    3. 3.3 Indicators For Biodiversity Monitoring
      1. 3.3.1 Management Practice Indicators
      2. 3.3.2 Management Performance Indicators
      3. 3.3.3 Biological Indicators
        1. 3.3.3.1 Environmental Indicators
        2. 3.3.3.2 Biodiversity Indicators
        3. 3.3.3.3 Ecological Indicators
        4. 3.3.3.4 Focal Species
        5. 3.3.3.5 Target Species Of Particular Conservation And Management Concern
    4. 3.4 Putting Biodiversity Monitoring Into Practice
    5. Acknowledgements
    6. References
  14. 4 Monitoring REDD+ Impacts: Cross Scale Coordination And Interdisciplinary Integration
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Key Concepts And Objectives In Monitoring
    3. 4.3 Options For Monitoring The Carbon And Non-Carbon Impacts Of REDD+
      1. 4.3.1 Carbon Monitoring
      2. 4.3.2 Social Monitoring
      3. 4.3.3 Environmental Monitoring
      4. 4.3.4 Possibilities For Integrated Monitoring?
    4. 4.4 Lessons Learned And Way Forward
    5. Acknowledgements
    6. References
  15. 5 Measuring Indicators For Sustainable River Basin Management
    1. 5.1 Introduction
      1. 5.2 Background and Context
      2. 5.3 Sustaining River Basin’s Ecosystem Services
        1. 5.3.1 Securing Adequate Water Supplies For All
          1. 5.3.1.1 Determining Water Productivity, Promoting Equitable Allocation
          2. 5.3.1.2 Access To Water Resources
      3. 5.3.2 Sustaining Good Water Quality
        1. 5.3.2.1 Water Quality Monitoring
        2. 5.3.2.2 Awareness Creation And Capacity Building
        3. 5.3.2.3 Compliance With Regulatory Measures
      4. 5.3.3 Protecting And Conserving Biodiversity
        1. 5.3.3.1 Area Enclosure (Gazettement) To Protect Biodiversity
        2. 5.3.3.2 Riparian Land Protection
        3. 5.3.3.3 Livelihood Diversification
    2. 5.4 Fostering Multi-Stakeholder Participation
      1. 5.4.1 Decentralization Through Institutional Arrangements
      2. 5.4.2 Public Participation And Consultation
    3. 5.5 Lessons Learned And Conclusion
    4. References
  16. 6 Sustaining Local Livelihoods Through Coastal Fisheries In Kenya
    1. 6.1 Introduction
      1. 6.1.1 Overview Of Global Fisheries Status
      2. 6.1.2 Paradigm Shift In Fisheries Management And Sustainability Indicators
      3. 6.1.3 Sustainability In Fisheries And Livelihoods Contexts
    2. 6.2 Kenya’s Marine Ecosystems And Resource Dependency
      1. 6.2.1 Coastal Fisheries And Livelihoods In Kenya
    3. 6.3 Approaches To Sustainable Livelihoods And Coastal Fisheries In Kenya
      1. 6.3.1 Establishment of Marine Protected Areas
      2. 6.3.2 Establishment of Community Conserved Areas (CCA)
      3. 6.3.3 Establishment of Co-management through Beach Management Units
      4. 6.3.4 Livelihood Diversification
    4. 6.4 Sustainability Indicators
    5. 6.5 Experience And Lessons Learned
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. References
  17. 7 Peninsular Pronghorn Conservation: Too Many Paradigms, Too Few Indicators
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Peninsularis State And Threats
    3. 7.3 Conservation In Practice: Assumptions And Paradigms
    4. 7.4 Knowledge Network Short-Term Recommendations
    5. 7.5 Longer-Term Need For Complete Ecosystems
    6. 7.6 Discussion
      1. 7.6.1 Privatization And Information
      2. 7.6.2 Information And Stakeholders In Knowledge Networks
      3. 7.6.3 Indicators In Practice
      4. 7.6.4 Indicators, Models, Metrics Or Unified Theory?
    7. 7.7 Conclusions
    8. Appendix: Pronghorn Management Questionnaire (Essential Indicators)
    9. References
  18. 8 Restoration Success Of Tropical Forests: The Search For Indicators
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Restoration Ecology: Definitions, Indicators And Strategies
    3. 8.3 How Functional Ecology Can Contribute With Restoration Ecology?
    4. 8.4 Conclusions
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. References
  19. 9 Sustainability Indicators In Brazilian Cattle Ranching
    1. 9.1 Introduction
      1. 9.1.1 Brazil And Global Food Production
      2. 9.1.2 Increasing Future Demands
      3. 9.1.3 Unsustainability Of Brazilian Cattle Ranching
      4. 9.1.4 Brazil´s Environment And Recent Initiatives To Protect It
      5. 9.1.5 Sustainable Intensification Of Brazilian Cattle-Ranching Systems
      6. 9.1.6 Selected Indicators For Sustainable Cattle Ranching In Brazil
        1. 9.1.6.1 Permanent Preservation Areas (App) And Legal Reserves (Rl)
        2. 9.1.6.2 Water Quality
        3. 9.1.6.3 Soil Erosion
        4. 9.1.6.4 Landscape Connectivity
        5. 9.1.6.5 Landscape Flammability
        6. 9.1.6.6 Intensification Level (Productivity)
        7. 9.1.6.7 Job And Income Generation
        8. 9.1.6.8 Animal Wellbeing
        9. 9.1.6.9 Greenhouse Gases Emissions
    2. 9.2 Discussion
      1. 9.2.1 Sustainability In The Context Of Brazilian Cattle Ranching
      2. 9.2.2 Indicators Should Be Transboundary And Consider Timeframe
      3. 9.2.3 Data Availability And Importance Of Monitoring
    3. 9.3 Conclusions
    4. References
  20. 10 Sustainability Indicators For Agriculture In The European Union
    1. 10.1 Introduction
      1. 10.1.1 Need For Monitoring Of Agriculture Worldwide
      2. 10.1.2 Different Definitions Of And Approaches To Sustainable Agriculture – What Is Sustainable Agriculture?
    2. 10.2 Introduction To The Case Study – EU Agriculture
      1. 10.2.1 Origins Of The Concept Of Sustainable Agriculture In Europe
      2. 10.2.2 What Were The Historical And Recent Trends Regarding Agriculture And Steps Towards Sustainability?
      3. 10.2.3 What Is Considered Sustainable Agriculture In Europe?
    3. 10.3 Which Indicators Are Used Within The EU To Assess Sustainable Agriculture?
      1. 10.3.1 Which Indicators Are Considered Sustainability Indicators In The EU?
    4. 10.4 Discussion
    5. 10.5 Conclusions
    6. References
  21. 11 Sustainability And Air Quality
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 General Reflections On Air Quality And Sustainability In The EU
      1. 11.2.1 When Sustainability Meets Air Quality
      2. 11.2.2 Tools For Improving Air Quality In Europe
    3. 11.3 The Air Quality In Poland
      1. 11.3.1 What Is The Problem With Air Quality In Poland?
      2. 11.3.2 Why Are There Problems With Air Quality In Poland?
      3. 11.3.3 Sustainability And The Problem Of Domestic Heating In Poland
        1. 11.3.3.1 Local Level
        2. 11.3.3.2 Regional Level
        3. 11.3.3.3 National Level
      4. 11.4 Conclusions
    4. References
  22. 12 How To Measure Wastewater Systems’ Sustainability?
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Indicators For Sustainability Assessment Of Wastewater System
    3. 12.3 Context Of The Case Study
      1. 12.3.1 The Polish Tariffs System And Wastewater System’s Indicators
      2. 12.3.2 Household’s Available Income And Tariffs System
      3. 12.3.3 And What Now?
      4. 12.3.4 Possible Recommendations
    4. 12.4 Conclusions
    5. References
  23. 13 Conclusions - Sustainability Indicators In Practice: Lessons Learned From The Past, Directions For The Future
  24. About the Authors