Chapter 1

Process Variation

Variation in behavior leads to variation in results.

The Shingo Model for Operational Excellence

Understanding Process Variation

Process variation is the root of many quality problems. The ability of a process to produce results that conform to requirements is an indicator of its capability. Conformance is often assessed by the degree to which a process is performed within its control parameters or a product meets the form, fit or functional requirements specified by engineering or customer. Process capability can be evaluated by comparing output results to a process target (mean), data variation (standard deviation) or proportions (e.g. percent good vs. bad). Figure 1.1 visualizes the benefit of shifting a process ...

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