CHAPTER 4

Force Field Analysis: A Way to Look at Challenges Facing Universities as They Try to Produce T-Shaped Graduates

Jana Markowitz1

Abstract

Several universities have determined that employers of 21st century workers are demanding a different “product” from them. Instead of a graduate with deep disciplinary knowledge in one major academic area (known as I-shaped), employers want someone with both the disciplinary knowledge and broader knowledge—in project management, collaboration, critical thinking, “soft skills,” and a smattering of other disciplines and systems (known as T-shaped). To create these desired T-shaped graduates, universities are committing, whether they realize it or not, to massive change. To produce a different graduate ...

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