Since 2014, all smartphone manufacturers have been offering near-field communication (NFC) connectivity; NFC standards use electromagnetic properties of radiofrequency across very short distances of no more than a few inches.
“NFC” refers to several technologies using electromagnetic fields allowing data transfer between two peripheral devices set close to one another. Known since the Second World War, radiofrequency identification (RFID) is a contactless communication system using electromagnetic fields to send messages for identification and automated traceability purposes thanks to tags linked to objects. Tags contain electronically stored data. Some tags are powered through electromagnetic induction from magnetic fields created when brought into proximity with an RFID reader/encoder. Passive tags act as a passive transponder, powered by the electromagnetic radio waves sent by the peripheral device initiating communication (reader).
NFC technology could offer a general purpose connection to any other wireless communication system (Bluetooth®, Wi-Fi, GPRS, 4G, Li-Fi, etc.) and allow device pairing with a simple tap (“TAP and PLAY” paradigm). This chapter focuses on the ecosystem in which NFC standards are implemented, its background and its standards.
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