It is possible to read through this entire book without installing anything. But it is recommended that you have a handy editor and TypeScript compiler installed to get your hands dirty. Please refer to Chapter 1, Tools and Frameworks, for the detailed preparation of tools, including Node.js, a TypeScript compiler, declaration manager, and a nice editor or IDE.
Though this book does not require the reader to have a knowledge of design patterns, it's not a book that teaches basic TypeScript syntax. If you are not yet familiar with TypeScript, please walk through the TypeScript Handbook before reading Chapter 2, The Challenge of Increasing Complexity.