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Wireless and Guided Wave Electromagnetics by Le Nguyen Binh

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5 Three-Dimensional Optical Waveguides

In modern optical communication systems, almost all optical devices, from passive to active components, such as lasers and waveguides, are in three-dimensional (3D) form. They ensure that the lightwaves are effectively trapped in planar structures, i.e., optical integrated circuit form, as shown in Figure 5.1, and thence manipulation of the lightwaves properties occurs by splitting, coupling, diffraction, and modulation by electro-optic, acousto-optic, or magneto-optic effects.

Therefore, following the fundamentals of planar optical waveguides, this chapter describes the 3D optical waveguides in which the waveguide is restricted in the transverse (x, y) plane, which is perpendicular to the propagation ...

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