Manipulating Strings

Four functions can be used to manipulate the characters of a string. They are listed in Table 17-8.

Table 17-8. Functions that manipulate strings

Name

Description

upper-case

Translates a string into uppercase equivalents

lower-case

Translates a string into lowercase equivalents

translate

Replaces individual characters with other individual characters

replace

Replaces characters that match a regular expression with a specified string

Converting Between Uppercase and Lowercase

The upper-case and lower-case functions are used to convert a string to all uppercase or lowercase. For example, upper-case("Query") returns QUERY. The mappings between lowercase and uppercase characters are determined by Unicode case mappings. If a character does not have a corresponding uppercase or lowercase character, it is included in the result string unchanged. Table 17-9 shows some examples.

Table 17-9. Examples of the uppercase and lowercase functions

Example

Return value

upper-case("query")

QUERY

upper-case("Query")

QUERY

lower-case("QUERY-123")

query-123

lower-case("Query")

query

Replacing Individual Characters in Strings

The translate function is used to replace individual characters in a string with other individual characters. It takes three arguments:

  • The string to be translated

  • The list of characters to be replaced (as a string)

  • The list of replacement characters (as a string)

Each character in the second argument is replaced by the character ...

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