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Developing High Quality Data Models

Book Description

Developing High Quality Data Models provides an introduction to the key principles of data modeling. It explains the purpose of data models in both developing an Enterprise Architecture and in supporting Information Quality; common problems in data model development; and how to develop high quality data models, in particular conceptual, integration, and enterprise data models.

The book is organized into four parts. Part 1 provides an overview of data models and data modeling including the basics of data model notation; types and uses of data models; and the place of data models in enterprise architecture. Part 2 introduces some general principles for data models, including principles for developing ontologically based data models; and applications of the principles for attributes, relationship types, and entity types. Part 3 presents an ontological framework for developing consistent data models. Part 4 provides the full data model that has been in development throughout the book. The model was created using Jotne EPM Technologys EDMVisualExpress data modeling tool.

This book was designed for all types of modelers: from those who understand data modeling basics but are just starting to learn about data modeling in practice, through to experienced data modelers seeking to expand their knowledge and skills and solve some of the more challenging problems of data modeling.

  • Uses a number of common data model patterns to explain how to develop data models over a wide scope in a way that is consistent and of high quality
  • Offers generic data model templates that are reusable in many applications and are fundamental for developing more specific templates
  • Develops ideas for creating consistent approaches to high quality data models

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Image
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Front-matter
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Part 1 Motivations and Notations
    1. 1. Introduction
      1. 1.1. Some Questions about Data Models
      2. 1.2. Purpose
      3. 1.3. Target Audience
      4. 1.4. What Is a Data Model?
      5. 1.5. Why Do We Do Data Models?
      6. 1.6. Approach to Data Modeling
      7. 1.7. Structure of This Book
    2. 2. Entity Relationship Model Basics
      1. 2.1. Oh, It’s Boxes and Lines Again…
      2. 2.2. Graphical or Lexical
      3. 2.3. Graphical Notations: Complexity vs. Understandability vs. Capability
      4. 2.4. Language and Notation Elements
      5. 2.5. Express-G
      6. 2.6. Notation for Instances and Classes
      7. 2.7. Layout of Data Models
      8. 2.8. Reflections
    3. 3. Some Types and Uses of Data Models
      1. 3.1. Different Types of Data Models
      2. 3.2. Integration of Data and Data Models
      3. 3.3. Concluding Remarks
    4. 4. Data Models and Enterprise Architecture
      1. 4.1. The Business Process Model
      2. 4.2. Information Architecture
      3. 4.3. Information Operations
      4. 4.4. Organization
      5. 4.5. Methodologies and Standards
      6. 4.6. Management
      7. 4.7. Wider Infrastructure
      8. 4.8. Enterprise Architecture Mappings
      9. 4.9. The Process/Data Balance
    5. 5. Some Observations on Data Models and Data Modeling
      1. 5.1. Limitations of Data Models
      2. 5.2. Challenges in Data Modeling
  7. Part 2 General Principles for Data Models
    1. 6. Some General Principles for Conceptual, Integration, and Enterprise Data Models
      1. 6.1. Data Modeling Approach
      2. 6.2. General Principles
      3. 6.3. Understanding Relationships
      4. 6.4. Principles for Data Models
      5. 6.5. Naughtiness Index
    2. 7. Applying the Principles for Attributes
      1. 7.1. Looking for Attributes Representing Relationships
      2. 7.2. Identifiers
      3. 7.3. What Other Attributes Might You Expect?
      4. 7.4. Concluding Remarks on Attributes
    3. 8. General Principles for Relationships
      1. 8.1. Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities—Batch and Product Type
      2. 8.2. Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities—Packed Products
      3. 8.3. An Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities—Ship
      4. 8.4. A Good Example of Applying the Principles for Relationships—Transfer and Storage
      5. 8.5. Concluding Remarks
    4. 9. General Principles for Entity Types
      1. 9.1. An Example—Combined Entity Types
      2. 9.2. An Example—Stock
      3. 9.3. Getting Subtypes Wrong
      4. 9.4. An Example of Fixed Hierarchies—Stock Classification
      5. 9.5. Getting the Right Level of Abstraction
      6. 9.6. Impact of Using the Principles
  8. Part 3 An Ontological Framework for Consistent Data Models
    1. 10. Motivation and Overview for an Ontological Framework
      1. 10.1. Motivation
      2. 10.2. Ontological Foundation
      3. 10.3. A Data Model for the Ontological Foundations
      4. 10.4. Closing Remarks
    2. 11. Spatio-Temporal Extents
      1. 11.1. Parts
      2. 11.2. Individuals and States
      3. 11.3. Inheritance of Properties by Substates
      4. 11.4. Space and Time
      5. 11.5. Ordinary Physical Objects
      6. 11.6. Levels of Reality
      7. 11.7. Activities and Events
      8. 11.8. Associations
      9. 11.9. A Data Model for Individuals
    3. 12. Classes
      1. 12.1. What Is a Set?
      2. 12.2. Sets and Four-Dimensionalism
      3. 12.3. Some Different Kinds of Set Theory
      4. 12.4. A High Level Data Model for Classes
      5. 12.5. Properties and Quantities
      6. 12.6. Scales and Units
      7. 12.7. Kinds
      8. 12.8. Concluding Remarks
    4. 13. Intentionally Constructed Objects
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Functional Objects
      3. 13.3. Socially Constructed Objects
      4. 13.4. Ownership
      5. 13.5. Agreements
      6. 13.6. Contracts
      7. 13.7. Organizations
      8. 13.8. Product
      9. 13.9. Representation
      10. 13.10. Concluding Remarks
    5. 14. Systems and System Components
      1. 14.1. What Are Systems and System Components?
      2. 14.2. The Nature of System Components
      3. 14.3. Another Example: A Football Match
      4. 14.4. Similarities, Differences, and Relationships to Other Things
      5. 14.5. Do I Need a Separate Set of Classes for System Components?
      6. 14.6. Extending the Framework for System and System Component
      7. 14.7. Concluding Remarks
    6. 15. Requirements Specification
      1. 15.1. A Process for Procurement
      2. 15.2. Requirements Specification
    7. 16. Concluding Remarks
  9. Part 4 The HQDM Framework Schema
    1. 17. HQDM_Framework
      1. 17.1. Thing and Abstract Object
      2. 17.2. Class and Class of Class
      3. 17.3. Relationship and Class of Relationship
      4. 17.4. Spatio-Temporal Extent and Class of Spatio-Temporal Extent
      5. 17.5. Event, Class of Event, and Point in Time
      6. 17.6. State and Individual
      7. 17.7. Physical Object
      8. 17.8. Ordinary Physical Object
      9. 17.9. Kind of Individual and Subtypes
      10. 17.10. Kind of System and System Component
      11. 17.11. Period of Time and Possible Worlds
      12. 17.12. Physical Properties and Physical Quantities
      13. 17.13. Association
      14. 17.14. Activity
      15. 17.15. Participant
      16. 17.16. Role, Class of Activity, and Class of Association
      17. 17.17. System
      18. 17.18. System Component
      19. 17.19. Installed Object
      20. 17.20. Biological Object
      21. 17.21. Ordinary Biological Object
      22. 17.22. Biological System
      23. 17.23. Person
      24. 17.24. Biological System Component
      25. 17.25. Intentionally Constructed Object
      26. 17.26. Functional Object
      27. 17.27. Ordinary Functional Object
      28. 17.28. Functional System
      29. 17.29. Socially Constructed Object
      30. 17.30. Party
      31. 17.31. Organization and Language Community
      32. 17.32. Employment
      33. 17.33. Organization Component and Position
      34. 17.34. Money
      35. 17.35. Ownership
      36. 17.36. Transfer of Ownership
      37. 17.37. Socially Constructed Activity
      38. 17.38. Class of Socially Constructed Activity
      39. 17.39. Agreement
      40. 17.40. Contract
      41. 17.41. Offer and Acceptance of Offer
      42. 17.42. Sale of Goods
      43. 17.43. Sales Product, Product Brand, and Sales Product Version
      44. 17.44. Offering
      45. 17.45. Sign and Pattern
      46. 17.46. Requirement and Requirement Specification
  10. Appendix. A Mapping Between the HQDM Schema and ISO 15926-2
  11. Index