5

State-Space and Discrete Systems

5.1    Introduction

As the interest in many scientific fields increased, modeling systems using linear time-invariant equations and tools such as transfer functions were not adequate. The state-space approach is superior to other classical methods of modeling. This modern approach can handle systems with nonzero initial conditions (modeling using transfer functions requires that initial conditions be set to zero) as well as time-variant systems. It can also handle linear and nonlinear systems. We also have been considering systems with single-input single-output. The state-space approach can handle multiple-input multiple-output systems.

Systems can have many variables. An example is an electrical ...

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