1. Unless otherwise cited, all quotes come from author-conducted interviews.
2. Some names and affiliations have been changed. When only first names are used, they are pseudonyms.
3. Sylvia Ann Hewlett, with Kerrie Peraino, Laura Sherbin, and Karen Sumberg, The Sponsor Effect: Breaking Through the Last Glass Ceiling (Boston: Harvard Business Review research report, December 2010).
4. Herminia Ibarra, Nancy Carter, and Christine Silva, “Why Men Still Get More Promotions Than Women,” Harvard Business Review, September 2010, 80–85.
5. Survey data reflects the talent pipeline worldwide for the year 2007.
6. Our three-year four survey inquiry culminated in four reports:
Sylvia Ann Hewlett et al, The Sponsor Effect
Sylvia Ann Hewlett, ...