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Fundamentals of Software Architecture by Neal Ford, Mark Richards

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Chapter 10. Layered Architecture Style

The layered architecture, also known as the n-tiered architecture style, is one of the most common architecture styles. This style of architecture is the de facto standard for most applications, primarily because of its simplicity, familiarity, and low cost. It is also a very natural way to develop applications due to Conway’s Law, which states that organizations that design systems are constrained to produce designs which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations. In most organizations there are user interface (UI) developers, backend developers, rules developers, and database experts (DBAs). These organizational layers fit nicely into the tiers of a traditional layered architecture, making it a natural choice for most business applications. The layered architecture style also falls into several architectural anti-patterns, including the architecture by implication anti-pattern and the accidental architecture anti-pattern. If a developer or architect is unsure which architecture style they are using, or if an agile development team “just starts coding”, chances are good that it is the layered architecture style they are implementing.

Topology

Components within the layered architecture style are organized into logical horizontal layers, with each layer performing a specific role within the application (such as presentation logic or business logic). Although there are no specific restrictions in terms of the number ...

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