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India Since Independence by V. Krishna Ananth

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I

Nineteenth-Century Intellectuals and the Emergence of Nationalist Thought

It was in England … that the bourgeoisie developed out of Indian gold, the unlimited profits of the Indian trade and, later, Indian wars. The profits of Spain … only strengthened reaction … and moribund feudalism; Portugal hardly fared better from its Eastern trade … The Dutch did progress, but the pressure of Spain and France by land and England by sea was fatal. France was a hundred years too late with its bourgeois revolution. In England alone were the necessary conditions satisfied.

—D. D. Kosambi, An Introduction to the Study of Indian History

The conclusion of the Battle of Plassey and the series of treaties that led to the various native rulers ceding territory ...

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