Contrastive divergence

One of the ways to compute the expectation of a joint probability distribution is to generate a lot of samples from the joint probability distribution by Gibbs sampling and then take the mean value of the samples as the expected value. In Gibbs sampling, each of the variables in the joint probability distribution can be sampled, conditioned on the rest of the variables. Since the visible units are independent, given the hidden units and vice versa, you can sample the hidden unit as and then the visible unit activation given the hidden unit as . We can then take the sample as one sampled from the joint probability distribution. ...

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