All right, let’s face it. Sometimes things go wrong. Sometimes the dog bites, and sometimes the bee stings. There are any number of possible causes: bad parameters, missing resources, and (gasp!) actual bugs. The point here is that a servlet has to be prepared for problems, both expected and unexpected. There are two points of concern when things go wrong:
Limiting damage to the server
Properly informing the client
Because servlets are written in Java, the potential damage they can cause to their server is greatly minimized. A server can safely embed servlets (even within its process), just as a web browser can safely embed downloaded applets. This safety is built on Java’s security features, including the use of protected memory, exception handling, and security managers. Java’s memory protection guarantees that servlets cannot accidentally (or intentionally) access the server’s internals. Java’s exception handling lets a server catch every exception raised by a servlet. Even if a servlet accidentally divides by zero or calls a method on a null object, the server can continue to function. Java’s security manager mechanism provides a way for servers to place untrusted servlets in a sandbox, limiting their abilities and keeping them from intentionally causing problems.
You should be aware that trusted servlets executing outside a security manager’s sandbox are given abilities that could potentially cause damage to the server. For example, a servlet can overwrite ...