Preface

A novice was trying to fix a broken Lisp machine by turning the power off and on.

Knight, seeing what the student was doing, spoke sternly: “You cannot fix a machine by just power-cycling it with no understanding of what is going wrong.”

Knight turned the machine off and on.

The machine worked.

AI Koan

One of the places over the last half century that had a deep hacker culture, in the sense of learning and creating, was the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and, specifically, its Artificial Intelligence Lab. The hackers at MIT generated a language and culture that created words and a unique sense of humor. The preceding quote is an AI koan, modeled on the koans of Zen, which were intended to inspire enlightenment. Similarly, this koan is one of my favorites because of what it says: it’s important to know how things work. Knight, by the way, refers to Tom Knight, a highly respected programmer at the AI Lab at MIT.

The intention for this book is to teach readers about the capabilities of Kali Linux through the lens of security testing. The idea is to help you better understand how and why things work. Kali Linux is a security-oriented Linux distribution, so it ends up being popular with people who do security testing or penetration testing for either sport or vocation. While it does have its uses as a general-purpose Linux distribution and for use with forensics and other related tasks, it really was designed with security testing in mind. As such, most of the book’s content focuses on using tools that Kali provides. Many of these tools are not necessarily easily available with other Linux distributions. While the tools can be installed, sometimes built from source, installation is easier if the package is in the distribution’s repository.

What This Book Covers

Given that the intention is to introduce Kali through the perspective of doing security testing, the following subjects are covered:

Foundations of Kali Linux

Linux has a rich history, going back to the 1960s with Unix. This chapter covers a bit of the background of Unix so you can better understand why the tools in Linux work the way they do and how best to make efficient use of them. We’ll also look at the command line since we’ll be spending a lot of time there through the rest of the book, as well as the desktops that are available so you can have a comfortable working environment. If you are new to Linux, this chapter will prepare you to be successful with the remainder of the book so you aren’t overwhelmed when we start digging deep into the tools available.

Network Security Testing Basics

The services you are most familiar with listen on the network. Also, systems that are connected to the network may be vulnerable. To be in a better position to perform testing over the network, we’ll cover some basics of the way network protocols work. When you really get deep into security testing, you will find an understanding of the protocols you are working with to be an invaluable asset. We will also take a look at tools that can be used for stress testing of network stacks and applications.

Reconnaissance

When you are doing security testing or penetration testing, a common practice is to perform reconnaissance against your target. A lot of open sources are available that you can use to gather information about your target. This will not only help you with later stages of your testing, but also provide a lot of details you can share with the organization you are performing testing for. This can help them correctly determine the footprint of systems available to the outside world. Information about an organization and the people in it can provide stepping stones for attackers, after all.

Looking for Vulnerabilities

Attacks against organizations arise from vulnerabilities. We’ll look at vulnerability scanners that can provide insight into the technical (as opposed to human) vulnerabilities that exist at your target organization. This will lead to hints on where to go from here, since the objective of security testing is to provide insights to the organization you are testing for about potential vulnerabilities and exposures. Identifying vulnerabilities will help you there.

Automated Exploits

While Metasploit may be the foundation of performing security testing or penetration testing, other tools are available as well. We’ll cover the basics of using Metasploit but also cover some of the other tools available for exploiting the vulnerabilities found by the tools discussed in other parts of the book.

Owning Metasploit

Metasploit is a dense piece of software. Getting used to using it effectively can take a long time. Nearly 2,000 exploits are available in Metasploit, as well as over 500 payloads. When you mix and match those, you get thousands of possibilities for interacting with remote systems. Beyond that, you can create your own modules. We’ll cover Metasploit beyond just the basics of using it for rudimentary exploits.

Wireless Security Testing

Everyone has wireless networks these days. That’s how mobile devices like phones and tablets, not to mention a lot of laptops, connect to enterprise networks. However, not all wireless networks have been configured in the best manner possible. Kali Linux has tools available for performing wireless testing. This includes scanning for wireless networks, injecting frames, and cracking passwords.

Web Application Testing

A lot of commerce happens through web interfaces. Additionally, a lot of sensitive information is available through web interfaces. Businesses need to pay attention to how vulnerable their important web applications are. Kali is loaded with tools that will help you perform assessments on web applications. We’ll take a look at proxy-based testing as well as other tools that can be used for more automated testing. The goal is to help you provide a better understanding of the security posture of these applications to the organization you are doing testing for.

Cracking Passwords

This isn’t always a requirement, but you may be asked to test both remote systems and local password databases for password complexity and difficulty in getting in remotely. Kali has programs that will help with password cracking—both cracking password hashes, as in a password file, and brute forcing logins on remote services like SSH, VNC, and other remote access protocols.

Advanced Techniques and Concepts

You can use all the tools in Kali’s arsenal to do extensive testing. At some point, though, you need to move beyond the canned techniques and develop your own. This may include creating your own exploits or writing your own tools. Getting a better understanding of how exploits work and how you can develop some of your own tools will provide insight on directions you can go. We’ll cover extending some of the tools Kali has as well as the basics of popular scripting languages along the way.

Reporting

The most important thing you will do is generate a report when you are done testing. Kali has a lot of tools that can help you generate a report at the end of your testing. We’ll cover techniques for taking notes through the course of your testing as well as some strategies for generating the report.

Who This Book Is For

While I hope there is something in this book for readers with a wide variety of experiences, the primary audience for the book is people who may have a little Linux or Unix experience but want to see what Kali is all about. This book is also for people who want to get a better handle on security testing by using the tools that Kali Linux has to offer. If you are already experienced with Linux, you may skip Chapter 1, for instance. You may also be someone who has done web application testing by using some common tools but you want to expand your range to a broader set of skills.

The Value and Importance of Ethics

A word about ethics, though you will see this come up a lot because it’s so important that it’s worth repeating. A lot. Security testing requires that you have permission. What you are likely to be doing is illegal in most places. Probing remote systems without permission can get you into a lot of trouble. Mentioning the legality at the top tends to get people’s attention.

Beyond the legality is the ethics. Security professionals who acquire certifications have to take oaths related to their ethical practices. One of the most important precepts here is not misusing information resources. The CISSP certification has a code of ethics that goes along with it, requiring you to agree to not do anything illegal or unethical.

Testing on any system you don’t have permission to test on is not only potentially illegal, but also certainly unethical by the standards of our industry. It isn’t sufficient to know someone at the organization you want to target and obtain their permission. You must have permission from a business owner or someone at an appropriate level of responsibility to give you that permission. It’s also best to have the permission in writing. This ensures that both parties are on the same page. It is also important to have the scope recognized up front. The organization you are testing for may have restrictions on what you can do, what systems and networks you can touch, and during what hours you can perform the testing. Get all of that in writing. Up front. This is your Get Out of Jail Free card. Write down the scope of testing and then live by it.

Also, communicate, communicate, communicate. Do yourself a favor. Don’t just get the permission in writing and then disappear without letting your client know what you are doing. Communication and collaboration will yield good results for you and the organization you are testing for. It’s also generally just the right thing to do.

Within ethical boundaries, have fun!

Conventions Used in This Book

The following typographical conventions are used in this book:

Italic

Indicates new terms, URLs, email addresses, filenames, and file extensions. Used within paragraphs to refer to program elements such as variable or function names, databases, data types, environment variables, statements, and keywords.

Constant width

Used for program listings and code examples.

Tip

This element signifies a tip or suggestion.

Note

This element signifies a general note.

Warning

This element indicates a warning or caution.

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Acknowledgments

Special thanks to Courtney Allen, who has been a great contact at O’Reilly. Thanks also to my editor, Virginia Wilson, and of course, my technical reviewers who helped make the book better—Brandon Noble, Kathleen Hyde, and especially Megan Daudelin!

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