Appendix A. Solutions to the Chapter Questions

Chapter 1 Answers

  1. A web server (such as Apache), a server-side scripting language (PHP), a database (MySQL), and a client-side scripting language (JavaScript).

  2. HyperText Markup Language: the web page itself, including text and markup tags.

  3. Like nearly all database engines, MySQL accepts commands in Structured Query Language (SQL). SQL is the way that every user (including a PHP program) communicates with MySQL.

  4. PHP runs on the server, whereas JavaScript runs on the client. PHP can communicate with the database to store and retrieve data, but it can’t alter the user’s web page quickly and dynamically. JavaScript has the opposite benefits and drawbacks.

  5. Cascading Style Sheets: styling and layout rules applied to the elements in an HTML document.

  6. Probably the most interesting new elements in HTML5 are <audio>, <video>, and <canvas>, although there are many others such as <article>, <summary>, <footer>, and more.

  7. Some of these technologies are controlled by companies that accept bug reports and fix the errors like any software company. But open source software also depends on a community, so your bug report may be handled by any user who understands the code well enough. You may someday fix bugs in an open source tool yourself.

Chapter 2 Answers

  1. WAMP stands for “Windows, Apache, MySQL, and PHP”; M in MAMP stands for Mac instead of Windows; and the L in LAMP stands for Linux. They all refer to a complete solution for hosting dynamic web pages.

  2. Both ...

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