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Linux Firewalls by Michael Rash

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Application Layer Responses

Technically, a purely application layer response to an application layer attack should only involve constructs that exist at the application layer. For example, if users are abusing an application, their accounts should simply be disabled, or if an attacker attempts an SQL injection attack via a CGI application executed by a webserver, the query should be discarded and an HTTP error code should be returned to the client. Such a response does not require manipulation of packet header information that exists below the application layer.

However, strictly application layer responses are impractical for firewalls and network intrusion prevention systems because they are not usually tightly integrated with the applications ...

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