3 Electrolyte for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

Marzieh Barghamadi1Mustafa Musameh1, Thomas Rüther2, Anand I. Bhatt2, Anthony F. Hollenkamp2 and Adam S. Best1

1 CSIRO Manufacturing, Research Way, Clayton, 3168, Vic., Australia

2 CSIRO Energy, Research Way, Clayton, 3168, Vic., Australia

3.1 The Case for Better Batteries

The demand for energy storage systems that are compact, lightweight, and powerful continues to grow, mainly due to the worldwide proliferation of portable electronic devices and improved batteries for electric vehicles (EVs), and related variants (hybrid electric vehicles, HEVs; plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles, PHEVs) [19]. On an even bigger scale, improved technologies for energy storage will also enable the incorporation of more renewable energy resources into the main (grid‐based) energy supply.

Arguably, the greatest challenge for battery technology is meeting the demand for huge increases in specific energy. For EVs to achieve driving ranges exceeding 300 miles (500 km), cell‐specific energy of ∼500 Wh kg−1 is required [1018]. By contrast, the rate of increase in specific energy for contemporary lithium‐ion battery technology is slowing, with the result that reliable battery performance at levels beyond 200 Wh kg−1 is still some way off [ 1015]. Thus, present‐day lithium‐ion battery technology is effectively limiting the growth of the EV, and, to some extent, the PHEV market [11,13]. Quite clearly, an increase in energy density from present‐day ...

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