1 Central Intelligence Agency (2011) The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2012.html Accessed 25 January 2011.
2 Spohrer, J. (2005) ‘Services Sciences, Management, Engineering (SSME): A next frontier in education, innovation, and economic growth and the role of knowledge representation techniques in services innovation’, Presentation by IBM SSME Education, Innovation, and Economic Growth, 25 October 2005.
3 Kotler, P. (2003) Marketing Management, 11th edn, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, pp. 695–797. (The marketing effectiveness audit is reproduced in full in this book.)
4 This section owes much to McDonald, M. and Wilson, H. (2003) The New Marketing, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Thanks to the authors for giving permission for its use here.
5 McDonald, M. and Wilson, H. (2011) Marketing Plans: How to prepare them, how to use them, 7th edn, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
6 Lanning, M. (2003) ‘An Introduction to the Market-focused Philosophy, Framework and Methodology called Delivering Profitable Value’. Available at http://www.exubrio.com/white-papers/DPVIntro-eXubrio.pdf Accessed 27 February 2008.
7 Frow, P. and Payne, A. (2008) ‘The Value Proposition Concept: Evolution, Development and Application in Marketing’, Academy of Marketing Conference, Aberdeen, UK, July.
1 Moeller, S. (2010) ‘Characteristics of Services – A New Approach Uncovers ...