The current energy scenario is becoming increasingly complex, and the need for an intelligent grid is ever more urgent. This has introduced several challenges to be solved, such as the interconnection of different sub-grids, the requirement of maintaining power quality above some limits, the improvement of grid stability, the integration of clean energy generation and the use of efficient high power and energy storage systems (ESSs).
Currently, the power grid is changing continuously, being adapted to fulfill minimum requirements in terms of nominal power, stability and reliability [1–3]. The increasing demand for energy by industry and housing requires the commissioning of new power plants or the purchase of energy from neighboring regions or countries. This necessitates the implementation of a highly meshed decentralized energy distribution grid, which allows the interconnection of power systems with different natures and from different regions. Multiple interconnections between different grids are currently required but this leads to some challenges, such as the stability and reliability of the overall energy generation and distribution system.
In addition, hazardous nuclear waste, the effects of global warming and CO2 emissions from the burning ...