• Mode A (Quadrant I): electrical energy is transferred from Vh side to VL side;
• Mode B (Quadrant II): electrical energy is transferred from VL side to VH side.
FIGURE 14.75 Two-quadrant switched-capacitor DC/DC Luo-converter.
Each mode has two states: “on” and “off.” Usually, each state is operating in different conduction duty k. The switching period is T where T = 1/f, where f is the switching frequency. The switches are the power MOSFET devices. The parasitic resistance of all switches is rS. The equivalent resistance of all capacitors is rC and the equivalent voltage drop of all diodes is VD Usually we select the three capacitors having ...