Appendix AMath Notation and Symbols

In this appendix, basic math concepts and notation are reviewed. Also, some Greek and statistical symbols are defined.

A.1 Summation

Suppose we have a sample of images observations: images. Summation is represented by


The summation notation is sometimes simplified to images or images.

A.2 pth Power

, means “ to the pth power.” For example, if , then , while .

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