2Concepts in Statistics

2.1 Introduction

The first chapter served as an appetizer by discussing the importance of Statistics and the proper application of statistical methods. It also discussed the need to combine statistical procedures with critical thinking. But we need a deeper understanding of concepts about data, data collection, and statistics.

First things first, data is a collection of facts about multiple units. A person, a car, a company product are examples of what we call units. A particular value or fact of the data is known as an observation. The facts collected are typically described in words or numerical measurements. Each fact is termed informally as a variable. A data set collects several facts from multiple units. For the purpose of statistical analysis, it is best to organize the data set so that each row represents a series of facts on a unit and each column represents a variable.

To extract useful information from this data set, we require statistics. Also worth noting is that some of the cells are empty, for example, the first few rows of college enrollment ...

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