Appendix C

Basic Results

C.1 Exponential Function ex

e = 2.71828 18284 (Figure C.1)

ex ey = ex+y


(ex)y = exy


Figure C.1 Exponential function ex.

C.2 Logarithm

C.2.1 Natural Logarithm

ln x is the inverse of ex and has base e (Figure C.2) and

eln x = x


ln(xy) = ln x + ln y


ln(xa) = a ln x

Figure C.2 Natural logarithm (ln x).

C.2.2 Common ...

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