Appendix C

Basic Results

C.1 Exponential Function ex

e = 2.71828 18284 (Figure C.1)

ex ey = ex+y


(ex)y = exy


Figure C.1 Exponential function ex.

C.2 Logarithm

C.2.1 Natural Logarithm

ln x is the inverse of ex and has base e (Figure C.2) and

eln x = x


ln(xy) = ln x + ln y


ln(xa) = a ln x

Figure C.2 Natural logarithm (ln x).

C.2.2 Common ...

Get Probability and Statistics now with O’Reilly online learning.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers.