Credit: David Ascher, Paul Prescod
Unicode strings can be encoded in plain strings in a variety of ways, according to whichever encoding you choose:
# Convert Unicode to plain Python string: "encode" unicodestring = u"Hello world" utf8string = unicodestring.encode("utf-8") asciistring = unicodestring.encode("ascii") isostring = unicodestring.encode("ISO-8859-1") utf16string = unicodestring.encode("utf-16") # Convert plain Python string to Unicode: "decode" plainstring1 = unicode(utf8string, "utf-8") plainstring2 = unicode(asciistring, "ascii") plainstring3 = unicode(isostring, "ISO-8859-1") plainstring4 = unicode(utf16string, "utf-16") assert plainstring1==plainstring2==plainstring3==plainstring4
If you find yourself dealing with text that contains non-ASCII characters, you have to learn about Unicode—what it is, how it works, and how Python uses it.
Unicode is a big topic. Luckily, you don’t need to know everything about Unicode to be able to solve real-world problems with it: a few basic bits of knowledge are enough. First, you must understand the difference between bytes and characters. In older, ASCII-centric languages and environments, bytes and characters are treated as the same thing. Since a byte can hold up to 256 values, these environments are limited to 256 characters. Unicode, on the other hand, has tens of thousands of characters. That means that each Unicode character takes more than one byte, so you need to make the distinction between characters and bytes.
Standard Python strings are really byte strings, and a Python character is really a byte. Other terms for the standard Python type are “8-bit string” and “plain string.” In this recipe we will call them byte strings, to remind you of their byte-orientedness.
Conversely, a Python Unicode character is an abstract object big
enough to hold the character, analogous to Python’s
long integers. You don’t have to worry about the
internal representation; the representation of Unicode characters
becomes an issue only when you are trying to send them to some
byte-oriented function, such as the
for files or the
send method for network sockets.
At that point, you must choose how to represent the characters as
bytes. Converting from Unicode to a byte string is called
encoding the string. Similarly, when you
load Unicode strings from a file, socket, or other byte-oriented
object, you need to decode the strings from
bytes to characters.
There are many ways of converting Unicode objects to byte strings, each of which is called an encoding. For a variety of historical, political, and technical reasons, there is no one “right” encoding. Every encoding has a case-insensitive name, and that name is passed to the decode method as a parameter. Here are a few you should know about:
The UTF-8 encoding can handle any Unicode character. It is also backward compatible with ASCII, so a pure ASCII file can also be considered a UTF-8 file, and a UTF-8 file that happens to use only ASCII characters is identical to an ASCII file with the same characters. This property makes UTF-8 very backward-compatible, especially with older Unix tools. UTF-8 is far and away the dominant encoding on Unix. It’s primary weakness is that it is fairly inefficient for Eastern texts.
The UTF-16 encoding is favored by Microsoft operating systems and the Java environment. It is less efficient for Western languages but more efficient for Eastern ones. A variant of UTF-16 is sometimes known as UCS-2.
The ISO-8859 series of encodings are 256-character ASCII supersets. They cannot support all of the Unicode characters; they can support only some particular language or family of languages. ISO-8859-1, also known as Latin-1, covers most Western European and African languages, but not Arabic. ISO-8859-2, also known as Latin-2, covers many Eastern European languages such as Hungarian and Polish.
If you want to be able to encode all Unicode characters, you probably want to use UTF-8. You will probably need to deal with the other encodings only when you are handed data in those encodings created by some other application.
Unicode is a huge topic, but a recommended book is Unicode: A Primer, by Tony Graham (Hungry Minds, Inc.)—details are available at http://www.menteith.com/unicode/primer/.