Chapter 11. Being On-Call

Being on-call is a critical duty that many operations and engineering teams must undertake in order to keep their services reliable and available. However, there are several pitfalls in the organization of on-call rotations and responsibilities that can lead to serious consequences for the services and for the teams if not avoided. This chapter describes the primary tenets of the approach to on-call that Google’s Site Reliability Engineers (SREs) have developed over years, and explains how that approach has led to reliable services and sustainable workload over time.


Several professions require employees to perform some sort of on-call duty, which entails being available for calls during both working and nonworking hours. In the IT context, on-call activities have historically been performed by dedicated Ops teams tasked with the primary responsibility of keeping the service(s) for which they are responsible in good health.

Many important services in Google, e.g., Search, Ads, and Gmail, have dedicated teams of SREs responsible for the performance and reliability of these services. Thus, SREs are on-call for the services they support. The SRE teams are quite different from purely operational teams in that they place heavy emphasis on the use of engineering to approach problems. These problems, which typically fall in the operational domain, exist at a scale that would be intractable ...

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