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Statistics in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition by Sarah Boslaugh

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Appendix F. Glossary of Statistical Terms

One challenge in any profession is learning the specific vocabulary required. This appendix provides a quick guide to key terms and notation used in this book; statistical vocabulary is covered in far greater detail in reference books such as The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics (Cambridge University Press, 2010) and The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics (Springer, 2008).

Table F-1. The Greek alphabet

Capital letter

Lowercase letter

Greek name

Capital letter

Lowercase letter

Greek name

A

α

Alpha

N

ν

Nu

B

β

Beta

Ξ

ξ

Xi

Γ

γ

Gamma

O

o

Omicron

Δ

δ

Delta

Π

π

Pi

E

ε

Epsilon

P

ρ

Rho

Z

ζ

Zeta

Σ

σ

Sigma

H

η

Eta

T

τ

Tau

Θ

θ

Theta

Y

υ

Upsilon

I

ι

Iota

Φ

ϕ

Phi

K

κ

Kappa

X

χ

Chi

Λ

λ

Lambda

Ψ

ψ

Psi

M

µ

Mu

Ω

ω

Omega

Table F-2. Statistical notation

Symbol

Meaning

S

Sample space (probability theory)

E

Event (probability theory)

Union of sets

Intersection of sets

P(A)

Probability of event A

P(A|B)

Probability of event A, given event B

P(~A)

Probability of A complement (probability of not-A)

e

Euler’s constant, the irrational number 2.718 . . .

ln

Natural logarithm (logarithm to base e)

logx

Logarithm to base x

xi

The ith member of sample x

Sample mean

µ

Population mean

s

Sample standard deviation

σ

Population standard deviation

s2

Sample variance

s2p

Pooled sample variance

σ2

Population variance

n

Sample size

N

Population size

r

Sample correlation

rpb

Point-biserial correlation

rs

Spearman rank-order correlation (Spearman’s rho)

γ

Goodman and Kruskal’s gamma

τa, τB, τC

Kendall’s ...

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