One challenge in any profession is learning the specific vocabulary required. This appendix provides a quick guide to key terms and notation used in this book; statistical vocabulary is covered in far greater detail in reference books such as *The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics* (Cambridge University Press, 2010) and *The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics* (Springer, 2008).

Figure F-1. The Greek alphabet

Figure F-2. Statistical notation

- Absolute value
The numerical value of a number, disregarding its sign; the absolute values of −4 and 4 are both 4. Using notation: |−4| = |4| = 4.

- Alpha (
*α*) In experimental design, the probability of a Type I error, that is, the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

- A priori hypothesis
A hypothesis specified before any testing is done.

- Beta (
*β*) In experimental design, the probability of a Type II error, that is, the probability of failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false. 1 −

*β*= power.- Bias
Error that is systematic and might lead to incorrect interpretation of results.

- Binary variables ...

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