One challenge in any profession is learning the specific vocabulary required. This appendix provides a quick guide to key terms and notation used in this book; statistical vocabulary is covered in far greater detail in reference books such as The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics (Cambridge University Press, 2010) and The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics (Springer, 2008).
Capital letter | Lowercase letter | Greek name | Capital letter | Lowercase letter | Greek name |
A | α | Alpha | N | ν | Nu |
B | β | Beta | Ξ | ξ | Xi |
Γ | γ | Gamma | O | o | Omicron |
Δ | δ | Delta | Π | π | Pi |
E | ε | Epsilon | P | ρ | Rho |
Z | ζ | Zeta | Σ | σ | Sigma |
H | η | Eta | T | τ | Tau |
Θ | θ | Theta | Y | υ | Upsilon |
I | ι | Iota | Φ | ϕ | Phi |
K | κ | Kappa | X | χ | Chi |
Λ | λ | Lambda | Ψ | ψ | Psi |
M | µ | Mu | Ω | ω | Omega |
Symbol | Meaning |
S | Sample space (probability theory) |
E | Event (probability theory) |
∪ | Union of sets |
∩ | Intersection of sets |
P(A) | Probability of event A |
P(A|B) | Probability of event A, given event B |
P(~A) | Probability of A complement (probability of not-A) |
e | Euler’s constant, the irrational number 2.718 . . . |
ln | Natural logarithm (logarithm to base e) |
log_{x} | Logarithm to base x |
x_{i} | The ith member of sample x |
Sample mean | |
µ | Population mean |
s | Sample standard deviation |
σ | Population standard deviation |
s^{2} | Sample variance |
s^{2}_{p} | Pooled sample variance |
σ^{2} | Population variance |
n | Sample size |
N | Population size |
r | Sample correlation |
r_{pb} | Point-biserial correlation |
r_{s} | Spearman rank-order correlation (Spearman’s rho) |
γ | Goodman and Kruskal’s gamma |
τ_{a}, τ_{B}, τ_{C} | Kendall’s ... |
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