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Thermal Engineering

Book Description

Pearson introduces the first edition of Thermal Engineering a complete offering for the undergraduate engineering students. With lucid exposition of the fundamental concepts along with numerous worked-out examples and well-labeled detailed illustrations, this book provides a holistic understanding of the subject. The content in the book encompasses applied thermodynamics, power plant engineering, energy conversion and management, internal combustion engines, turbomachinery, gas turbines and jet propulsion and refrigeration and air-conditioning taught at different levels of the curriculum.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. About Pearson
  3. Title Page
  4. Brief Contents
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. About the Authors
  8. Chapter 1 Fuels and Combustion
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Classification of Fuels
    3. 1.3 Solid Fuels
      1. 1.3.1 Primary Fuels
      2. 1.3.2 Secondary Fuels
      3. 1.3.3 Desirable Properties of Coal
      4. 1.3.4 Ranking of Coal
      5. 1.3.5 Grading of Coal
    4. 1.4 Liquid Fuels
      1. 1.4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Liquid Fuels Over Solid Fuels
      2. 1.4.2 Calorific Value of Liquid Fuels
      3. 1.4.3 Desirable Properties of Liquid Fuels
    5. 1.5 Gaseous Fuels
      1. 1.5.1 Calorific Value of Gaseous Fuels
      2. 1.5.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Gaseous Fuels
      3. 1.5.3 Important Properties of Gaseous Fuels
    6. 1.6 Liquefied Gases
      1. 1.6.1 Liquefied Petroleum Gas
      2. 1.6.2 Liquefied or Compressed Natural Gas
    7. 1.7 Biofuels
    8. 1.8 Analysis of Fuels
      1. 1.8.1 Proximate Analysis
      2. 1.8.2 Ultimate Analysis
    9. 1.9 Calorific Value of Fuels
    10. 1.10 Combustion of Fuels
    11. 1.11 Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuel
    12. 1.12 Minimum Air Required for Complete Combustion of Solid/Liquid Fuels
    13. 1.13 Conversion of Volumetric Analysis to Mass (or Gravimetric) Analysis and Vice-Versa
    14. 1.14 Determination of Air Supplied
      1. 1.14.1 Percentage of Carbon by Mass in Fuel and Volumetric Analysis is Known
      2. 1.14.2 Excess Air Supplied
    15. 1.15 Determination of Percentage of Carbon in Fuel Burning to CO and CO2
    16. 1.16 Determination of Minimum Quantity of Air Required for Complete Combustion of Gaseous Fuel
    17. 1.17 Determination of Excess Air Supplied for Gaseous Fuel
    18. 1.18 Flue Gas Analysis
      1. 1.18.1 Orsat Apparatus Construction
    19. 1.19 Bomb Calorimeter
      1. 1.19.1 Construction
      2. 1.19.2 Working
      3. 1.19.3 Cooling Correction
    20. 1.20 Boys Gas Calorimeter
      1. 1.20.1 Construction
      2. 1.20.1 Working
    21. Summary for Quick Revision
    22. Multiple-choice Questions
    23. Review Questions
    24. Exercises
    25. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  9. Chapter 2 Properties of Steam
    1. 2.1 Pure Substance
    2. 2.2 Constant Pressure Formation of Steam
    3. 2.3 Properties of Steam
    4. 2.4 Steam Tables
    5. 2.5 Temperature-Entropy Diagram for Water and Steam
    6. 2.6 Enthalpy-Entropy or Mollier Diagram of Steam
    7. 2.7 Various Processes for Steam
      1. 2.7.1 Constant Volume Process
      2. 2.7.2 Constant Pressure Process
      3. 2.7.3 Isothermal Process
      4. 2.7.4 Hyperbolic Process
      5. 2.7.5 Reversible Adiabatic or Isentropic Process
      6. 2.7.6 Polytropic Process
      7. 2.7.7 Throttling Process
    8. 2.8 Determination of Dryness Fraction of Steam
      1. 2.8.1 Barrel Calorimeter
      2. 2.8.2 Separating Calorimeter
      3. 2.8.3 Throttling Calorimeter
      4. 2.8.4 Combined Separating and Throttling Calorimeter
    9. Summary for Quick Revision
    10. Multiple-choice Questions
    11. Review Questions
    12. Exercises
    13. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  10. Chapter 3 Steam Generators
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Classification of Steam Generators
    3. 3.3 Comparison of Fire Tube and Water Tube Boilers
    4. 3.4 Requirements of a Good Boiler
    5. 3.5 Factors Affecting Boiler Selection
    6. 3.6 Description of Boilers
      1. 3.6.1 Fire Tube Boilers
      2. 3.6.2 Water Tube Boilers
    7. 3.7 High Pressure Boilers
      1. 3.7.1 Boiler Circulation
      2. 3.7.2 Advantages of Forced Circulation Boilers
      3. 3.7.3 LaMont Boiler
      4. 3.7.4 Benson Boiler
      5. 3.7.5 Loeffler Boiler
      6. 3.7.6 Schmidt-Hartmann Boiler
      7. 3.7.7 Velox Boiler
      8. 3.7.8 Once-through Boiler
    8. 3.8 Circulation
    9. 3.9 Steam Drum
      1. 3.9.1 Mechanism of Separation of Moisture in Drum
    10. 3.10 Fluidised Bed Boiler
      1. 3.10.1 Bubbling Fluidised Bed Boiler (BFBB)
      2. 3.10.2 Advantages of BFBB
    11. 3.11 Boiler Mountings
      1. 3.11.1 Water Level Indicator
      2. 3.11.2 Pressure Gauge
      3. 3.11.3 Steam Stop Valve
      4. 3.11.4 Feed Check Valve
      5. 3.11.5 Blow-Down Cock
      6. 3.11.6 Fusible Plug
      7. 3.11.7 Safety Valves
      8. 3.11.8 High Steam and Low Water Safety Valve
    12. 3.12 Boiler Accessories
      1. 3.12.1 Air Preheater
      2. 3.12.2 Economiser
      3. 3.12.3 Superheater
    13. 3.13 Steam Accumulators
      1. 3.13.1 Variable Pressure Accumulator
      2. 3.13.2 Constant Pressure Accumulator
    14. 3.14 Performance of Steam Generator
      1. 3.14.1 Evaporation Rate
      2. 3.14.2 Performance
      3. 3.14.3 Boiler Thermal Efficiency
      4. 3.14.4 Heat Losses in a Boiler Plant
      5. 3.14.5 Boiler Trial and Heat Balance Sheet
    15. 3.15 Steam Generator Control
    16. 3.16 Electrostatic Precipitator
    17. 3.17 Draught
      1. 3.17.1 Classification of Draught
      2. 3.17.2 Natural Draught
      3. 3.17.3 Height and Diameter of Chimney
      4. 3.17.4 Condition for Maximum Discharge Through Chimney
      5. 3.17.5 Efficiency of Chimney
      6. 3.17.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Draught
      7. 3.17.7 Draught Losses
      8. 3.17.8 Artificial Draught
      9. 3.17.9 Comparison of Forced and Induced Draughts
      10. 3.17.10 Comparison of Mechanical and Natural Draughts
      11. 3.17.11 Balanced Draught
      12. 3.17.12 Steam Jet Draught
    18. Summary for Quick Revision
    19. Multiple-choice Questions
    20. Explanatory Notes
    21. Review Questions
    22. Exercises
    23. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  11. Chapter 4 Steam Power Cycles
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Carnot Vapour Cycle
      1. 4.2.1 Drawbacks of Carnot Cycle
    3. 4.3 Rankine Cycle
      1. 4.3.1 Analysis of Rankine Cycle
      2. 4.3.2 Effect of Boiler and Condenser Pressure
    4. 4.4 Methods of Improving Efficiency
      1. 4.4.1 Reheat Cycle
      2. 4.4.2 Effect of Pressure Drop in the Reheater
    5. 4.5 Regeneration
      1. 4.5.1 Regenerative Cycle with Open Heaters
      2. 4.5.2 Regenerative Cycle with Closed Heaters
    6. 4.6 Reheat-Regenerative Cycle
    7. 4.7 Properties of an Ideal Working Fluid
    8. 4.8 Binary Vapour Cycles
    9. 4.9 Combined Power and Heating Cycle-Cogeneration
    10. Summary for Quick Revision
    11. Multiple-choice Questions
    12. Review Questions
    13. Exercises
    14. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  12. Chapter 5 Steam Engines
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Classification of Steam Engines
    3. 5.3 Constructional Features of a Steam Engine
      1. 5.3.1 Steam Engine Parts
    4. 5.4 Terminology Used in Steam Engine
    5. 5.5 Working of a Steam Engine
    6. 5.6 Rankine Cycle
    7. 5.7 Modified Rankine Cycle
    8. 5.8 Hypothetical or Theoretical Indicator Diagram
    9. 5.9 Actual Indicator Diagram
    10. 5.10 Mean Effective Pressure
      1. 5.10.1 Without Clearance
      2. 5.10.2 With Clearance
      3. 5.10.3 With Clearance and Compression
      4. 5.10.4 With Clearance and Polytropic Expansion and Compression
    11. 5.11 Power Developed and Efficiencies
      1. 5.11.1 Indicated Power
      2. 5.11.2 Brake Power
      3. 5.11.3 Efficiencies of Steam Engine
    12. 5.12 Governing of Steam Engines
    13. 5.13 Saturation Curve and Missing Quantity
    14. 5.14 Heat Balance Sheet
    15. 5.15 Performance Curves
    16. Summary for Quick Revision
    17. Multiple-choice Questions
    18. Review Questions
    19. Exercises
    20. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  13. Chapter 6 Flow Through Steam Nozzles
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Continuity Equation
    3. 6.3 Velocity of Flow of Steam Through Nozzles
      1. 6.3.1 Flow of Steam Through the Nozzle
    4. 6.4 Mass Flow Rate of Steam
    5. 6.5 Critical Pressure Ratio
    6. 6.6 Maximum Discharge
    7. 6.7 Effect of Friction on Expansion of Steam
    8. 6.8 Nozzle Efficiency
    9. 6.9 Supersaturated or Metastable Flow Through a Nozzle
    10. 6.10 Isentropic, One-Dimensional Steady Flow Through a Nozzle
      1. 6.10.1 Relationship between Actual and Stagnation Properties
    11. 6.11 Mass Rate of Flow Through an Isentropic Nozzle
      1. 6.11.1 Effect of Varying the Back Pressure on Mass Flow Rate
    12. 6.12 Normal Shock in an Ideal Gas Flowing Through a Nozzle
    13. Summary for Quick Revision
    14. Multiple-choice Questions
    15. Explanatory Notes
    16. Review Questions
    17. Exercises
    18. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  14. Chapter 7 Steam Turbines
    1. 7.1 Principle of Operation of Steam Turbines
    2. 7.2 Classification of Steam Turbines
    3. 7.3 Comparison of Impulse and Reaction Turbines
    4. 7.4 Compounding of Impulse Turbines
    5. 7.5 Velocity Diagrams for Impulse Steam Turbine
      1. 7.5.1 Condition for Maximum Blade Efficiency
      2. 7.5.2 Maximum Work Done
      3. 7.5.3 Velocity Diagrams for Velocity Compounded Impulse Turbine
      4. 7.5.4 Effect of Blade Friction on Velocity Diagrams
      5. 7.5.5 Impulse Turbine with Several Blade Rings
    6. 7.6 Advantages and Limitations of Velocity Compounding
      1. 7.6.1 Advantages
      2. 7.6.2 Limitations
    7. 7.7 Velocity Diagrams for Impulse-Reaction Turbine
    8. 7.8 Reheat Factor
    9. 7.9 Losses in Steam Turbines
    10. 7.10 Turbine Efficiencies
    11. 7.11 Governing of Steam Turbines
    12. 7.12 Labyrinth Packing
    13. 7.13 Back Pressure Turbine
    14. 7.14 Pass Out or Extraction Turbine
    15. 7.15 Co-Generation
    16. 7.16 Erosion of Steam Turbine Blades
    17. Summary for Quick Revision
    18. Multiple-choice Questions
    19. Explanatory Notes
    20. Review Questions
    21. Exercises
    22. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  15. Chapter 8 Steam Condensers
    1. 8.1 Definition
    2. 8.2 Functions of a Condenser
    3. 8.3 Elements of Steam Condensing Plant
    4. 8.4 Types of Steam Condensers
    5. 8.4.1 Jet Condensers
    6. 8.4.2 Surface Condensers
    7. 8.5 Requirements of Modern Surface Condensers
    8. 8.6 Comparison of Jet and Surface Condensers
      1. 8.6.1 Jet Condensers
      2. 8.6.2 Surface Condensers
    9. 8.7 Vacuum Measurement
    10. 8.8 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
    11. 8.9 Mass of Cooling Water Required in a Condenser
    12. 8.10 Air Removal from the Condenser
      1. 8.10.1 Sources of Air Infiltration in Condenser
      2. 8.10.2 Effects of Air Infiltration in Condensers
    13. 8.11 Air Pump
      1. 8.11.1 Edward’s Air Pump
    14. 8.12 Vacuum Efficiency
    15. 8.13 Condenser Efficiency
    16. 8.14 Cooling Tower
    17. Summary for Quick Revision
    18. Multiple-choice Questions
    19. Review Questions
    20. Exercises
    21. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  16. Chapter 9 Gas Power Cycles
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Piston-cylinder Arrangement
    3. 9.3 Carnot Cycle
    4. 9.4 Stirling Cycle
    5. 9.5 Ericsson Cycle
    6. 9.6 Atkinson Cycle
    7. 9.7 Otto Cycle (Constant Volume Cycle)
    8. 9.8 Diesel Cycle
    9. 9.9 Dual Cycle
    10. 9.10 Brayton Cycle
    11. 9.11 Comparison Between Otto, Diesel, and Dual Cycles
    12. Fill in the Blanks
    13. Answers
    14. True or False
    15. Answers
    16. Multiple-choice Questions
    17. Review Questions
    18. Exercises
    19. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  17. Chapter 10 Internal Combustion Engine Systems
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Classification of Internal Combustion Engines
    3. 10.3 Construction Features
    4. 10.4 Working of IC Engines
      1. 10.4.1 Four-stroke Spark-ignition Engine
      2. 10.4.2 Four-stroke Compression-ignition Engine
      3. 10.4.3 Two-stroke Spark-ignition Engine
      4. 10.4.4 Two-stroke Compression-ignition Engine
    5. 10.5 Comparison of Four-stroke and Two-stroke Engines
    6. 10.6 Comparison of SI and CI Engines
    7. 10.7 Merits and Demerits of Two-stroke Engines Over Four-stroke Engines
      1. 10.7.1 Merits
      2. 10.7.2 Demerits
    8. 10.8 Valve Timing Diagrams
      1. 10.8.1 Four-stroke SI Engine
      2. 10.8.2 Four-stroke CI Engine
      3. 10.8.3 Two-stroke SI Engine
      4. 10.8.4 Two-stroke CI Engine
    9. 10.9 Scavenging Process
    10. 10.10 Applications of IC Engines
    11. 10.11 Theoretical and Actual p-v Diagrams
      1. 10.11.1 Four-stroke Petrol Engine
      2. 10.11.2 Four-stroke Diesel Engine
      3. 10.11.3 Two-stroke Petrol Engine
      4. 10.11.4 Two-stroke Diesel Engine
    12. 10.12 Carburetion
      1. 10.12.1 Simple Carburettor
      2. 10.12.2 Compensating Jet
      3. 10.12.3 Theory of Simple Carburettor
      4. 10.12.4 Limitations of Single Jet Carburettor
      5. 10.12.5 Different Devices Used to Meet the Requirements of an Ideal Carburettor
      6. 10.12.6 Complete Carburettor
    13. 10.13 Fuel Injection Systems in SI Engines
      1. 10.13.1 Continuous Port Injection System (Lucas Mechanical Petrol Injection System)
      2. 10.13.2 Electronic Fuel Injection System
      3. 10.13.3 Rotary Gate Meter Fuel Injection System
    14. 10.14 Fuel Injection in CI Engines
      1. 10.14.1 Types of Injection Systems
      2. 10.14.2 Design of Fuel Nozzle
    15. 10.15 Fuel Ignition
      1. 10.15.1 Requirement of Ignition System
      2. 10.15.2 Ignition Systems
    16. 10.16 Combustion in IC Engines
      1. 10.16.1 Stages of Combustion in SI Engines
      2. 10.16.2 Ignition Lag (or Delay) in SI Engines
      3. 10.16.3 Factors Affecting the Flame Propagation
      4. 10.16.4 Phenomena of Knocking/Detonation in SI Engines
      5. 10.16.5 Factors Influencing Detonation/Knocking
      6. 10.16.6 Methods for Suppressing Knocking
      7. 10.16.7 Effects of Knocking/Detonation
    17. 10.17 Combustion Chambers for SI Engines
      1. 10.17.1 Basic Requirements of a Good Combustion Chamber
      2. 10.17.2 Combustion Chamber Design Principles
      3. 10.17.3 Combustion Chamber Designs
    18. 10.18 Combustion in CI Engines
      1. 10.18.1 Stages of Combustion
      2. 10.18.2 Delay Period or Ignition Delay
      3. 10.18.3 Variables Affecting Delay Period
    19. 10.19 Knocking in CI Engines
      1. 10.19.1 Factors Affecting Knocking in CI Engines
      2. 10.19.2 Controlling the Knocking
      3. 10.19.3 Comparison of Knocking in SI and CI Engines
    20. 10.20 Combustion Chambers for CI Engines
    21. 10.21 Lubrication Systems
      1. 10.21.1 Functions of a Lubricating System
      2. 10.21.2 Desirable Properties of a Lubricating Oil
      3. 10.21.3 Lubricating Systems Types
      4. 10.21.4 Lubricating System for IC Engines
      5. 10.21.5 Lubrication of Different Engine Parts
    22. 10.22 Necessity of IC Engine Cooling
      1. 10.22.1 Types of Cooling Systems
      2. 10.22.2 Precision Cooling
      3. 10.22.3 Dual Circuit Cooling
      4. 10.22.4 Disadvantages of Overcooling
    23. 10.23 Engine Radiators
      1. 10.23.1 Radiator Matrix
      2. 10.23.2 Water Requirements of Radiator
      3. 10.23.3 Fans
    24. 10.24 Cooling of Exhaust Valve
    25. 10.25 Governing of IC Engines
    26. 10.26 Rating of SI Engine Fuels-Octane Number
      1. 10.26.1 Anti-knock Agents
      2. 10.26.2 Performance Number
    27. 10.27 Highest Useful Compression Ratio
    28. 10.28 Rating of CI Engine Fuels
    29. 10.29 IC Engine Fuels
      1. 10.29.1 Fuels for SI Engines
      2. 10.29.2 Fuels for CI Engines
    30. 10.30 Alternative Fuels for IC Engines
      1. 10.30.1 Alcohols
      2. 10.30.2 Use of Hydrogen in CI Engines
      3. 10.30.3 Biogas
      4. 10.30.4 Producer (or Water) Gas
      5. 10.30.5 Biomass-generated Gas
      6. 10.30.6 LPG as SI Engine Fuel
      7. 10.30.7 Compressed Natural Gas
      8. 10.30.8 Coal Gasification and Coal Liquefaction
      9. 10.30.9 Non-edible Vegetable Oils
      10. 10.30.10 Non-edible Wild Oils
      11. 10.30.11 Ammonia
    31. Summary for Quick Revision
    32. Multiple-choice Questions
    33. Review Questions
    34. Exercises
    35. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  18. Chapter 11 Performance of Internal Combustion Engines
    1. 11.1 Performance Parameters
    2. 11.2 Basic Engine Measurements
    3. 11.3 Heat Balance Sheet
    4. 11.4 Willan’s Line Method
    5. 11.5 Morse Test
    6. 11.6 Performance of SI Engines
      1. 11.6.1 Performance of SI Engine at Constant Speed and Variable Load
    7. 11.7 Performance of CI Engines
    8. 11.8 Performance Maps
    9. 11.9 Measurement of Air Consumption by Air-box Method
    10. 11.10 Measurement of Brake Power
    11. 11.11 Supercharging of IC Engines
      1. 11.11.1 Thermodynamic Cycle
      2. 11.11.2 Supercharging of SI Engines
      3. 11.11.3 Supercharging of CI Engines
      4. 11.11.4 Effects of Supercharging
      5. 11.11.5 Objectives of Supercharging
      6. 11.11.6 Configurations of a Supercharger
      7. 11.11.7 Supercharging of Single Cylinder Engines
    12. 11.12 SI Engine Emissions
      1. 11.12.1 Exhaust Emissions
      2. 11.12.2 Evaporative Emission
      3. 11.12.3 Crankcase Emission
      4. 11.12.4 Lead Emission
    13. 11.13 Control of Emissions in SI Engine
    14. 11.14 Crank Case Emission Control
    15. 11.15 CI Engine Emissions
      1. 11.15.1 Effect of Engine Type on Diesel Emission
      2. 11.15.2 Control of Emission from Diesel Engine
      3. 11.15.3 NO x-Emission Control
    16. 11.16 Three-Way Catalytic Converter
      1. 11.16.1 Function of a Catalyst in a Catalytic Converter
    17. 11.17 Environmental Problems Created by Exhaust Emission from IC Engines
    18. 11.18 Use of Unleaded Petrol
      1. 11.18.1 Use of Additives
    19. Summary for Quick Revision
    20. Multiple-choice Questions
    21. Explanatory Notes
    22. Review Questions
    23. Exercises
    24. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  19. Chapter 12 Reciprocating Air Compressors
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Uses of Compressed Air in Industry
    3. 12.3 Working Principle of Single-stage Reciprocating Compressor
    4. 12.4 Terminology
    5. 12.5 Types of Compression
      1. 12.5.1 Methods for Approximating Compression Process to Isothermal
    6. 12.6 Single-Stage Compression
      1. 12.6.1 Required Work
      2. 12.6.2 Volumetric Efficiency
      3. 12.6.3 Isothermal Efficiency
      4. 12.6.4 Adiabatic Efficiency
      5. 12.6.5 Calculation of Main Dimensions
    7. 12.7 Multi-Stage Compression
      1. 12.7.1 Two-stage Compressor
      2. 12.7.2 Heat Rejected to the Intercooler
      3. 12.7.3 Cylinder Dimensions
      4. 12.7.4 Intercooler and Aftercooler
    8. 12.8 Indicated Power of a Compressor
    9. 12.9 Air Motors
    10. 12.10 Indicator Diagram
    11. 12.11 Heat Rejected
    12. 12.12 Control of Compressor
    13. Summary for Quick Revision
    14. Multiple-choice Questions
    15. Explanatory Notes
    16. Review Questions
    17. Exercises
    18. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  20. Chapter 13 Rotary Air Compressors
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Working Principle of Different Rotary Compressors
      1. 13.2.1 Roots Blower or Lobe Compressor
      2. 13.2.2 Vanes Type Blower
      3. 13.2.3 Lysholm Compressor
      4. 13.2.4 Screw Compressor
    3. 13.3 Comparison of Rotary and Reciprocating Compressors
    4. Summary for Quick Revision
    5. Multiple-choice Questions
    6. Review Questions
    7. Exercises
    8. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  21. Chapter 14 Centrifugal Air Compressors
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Constructional Features
    3. 14.3 Working Principle
    4. 14.4 Variation of Velocity and Pressure
    5. 14.5 Types of Impellers
    6. 14.6 Comparison of Centrifugal and Reciprocating Compressors
    7. 14.7 Comparison of Centrifugal and Rotary Compressors
    8. 14.8 Static and Stagnation Properties
    9. 14.9 Adiabatic and Isentropic Processes
      1. 14.9.1 Isentropic Efficiency
    10. 14.10 Velocity Diagrams
      1. 14.10.1 Theory of Operation
      2. 14.10.2 Width of Blades of Impeller and Diffuser
    11. 14.11 Slip Factor and Pressure Coefficient
    12. 14.12 Losses
    13. 14.13 Effect of Impeller Blade Shape on Performance
    14. 14.14 Diffuser
    15. 14.15 Pre-Whirl
    16. 14.16 Performance Characteristics
    17. 14.17 Surging and Choking
    18. Summary for Quick Revision
    19. Multiple-choice Questions
    20. Explanatory Notes
    21. Review Questions
    22. Exercises
    23. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  22. Chapter 15 Axial Flow Air Compressors
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Constructional Features
    3. 15.3 Working Principle
    4. 15.4 Simple Theory of Aerofoil Blading
    5. 15.5 Velocity Diagrams
    6. 15.6 Degree of Reaction
    7. 15.7 Pressure Rise in Isentropic Flow Through a Cascade
    8. 15.8 Polytropic Efficiency
    9. 15.9 Flow Coefficient, Head or Work Coefficient, Deflection Coefficient, and Pressure Coefficient
    10. 15.10 Pressure Rise in a Stage and Number of Stages
    11. 15.11 Surging, Choking, and Stalling
    12. 15.12 Performance Characteristics
    13. 15.13 Comparison of Axial Flow and Centrifugal Compressors
    14. 15.14 Applications of Axial Flow Compressors
    15. 15.15 Losses in Axial Flow Compressors
    16. Summary for Quick Revision
    17. Multiple-choice Questions
    18. Explanatory Notes
    19. Review Questions
    20. Exercises
    21. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  23. Chapter 16 Gas Turbines
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Fields of Application of Gas Turbine
    3. 16.3 Limitations of Gas Turbines
    4. 16.4 Comparison of Gas Turbines with IC Engines
      1. 16.4.1 Advantages
      2. 16.4.2 Disadvantages
    5. 16.5 Advantages of Gas Turbines Over Steam Turbines
    6. 16.6 Classification of Gas Turbines
      1. 16.6.1 Constant Pressure Combustion Gas Turbine
      2. 16.6.2 Constant Volume Combustion Gas Turbine
    7. 16.7 Comparison of Open and Closed Cycle Gas Turbines
    8. 16.8 Position of Gas Turbine in the Power Industry
    9. 16.9 Thermodynamics of Constant Pressure Gas Turbine: Brayton Cycle
      1. 16.9.1 Efficiency
      2. 16.9.2 Specific Output
      3. 16.9.3 Maximum Work Output
      4. 16.9.4 Work Ratio
      5. 16.9.5 Optimum Pressure Ratio for Maximum Specific Work Output
    10. 16.10 Cycle Operation with Machine Efficiency
      1. 16.10.1 Maximum Pressure Ratio for Maximum Specific Work
      2. 16.10.2 Optimum Pressure Ratio for Maximum Cycle Thermal Efficiency
    11. 16.11 Open Cycle Constant Pressure Gas Turbine
    12. 16.12 Methods for Improvement of Thermal Efficiency of Open Cycle Constant Pressure Gas Turbine
      1. 16.12.1 Regeneration
      2. 16.12.2 Intercooling
      3. 16.12.3 Reheating
      4. 16.12.4 Reheat and Regenerative Cycle
      5. 16.12.5 Cycle with Intercooling and Regeneration
      6. 16.12.6 Cycle with Intercooling and Reheating
      7. 16.12.7 Cycle with Intercooling, Regeneration and Reheating
    13. 16.13 Effects of Operating Variables
      1. 16.13.1 Effect of Pressure Ratio
      2. 16.13.2 Effect of Efficiencies of Compressor and Turbine on Thermal Efficiency
    14. 16.14 Multi-Shaft Systems
    15. 16.15 Multi-Shaft System Turbines in Series
    16. 16.16 Gas Turbine Fuels
    17. 16.17 Blade Materials
      1. 16.17.1 Selection
      2. 16.17.2 Requirements of Blade Material
    18. 16.18 Cooling of Blades
      1. 16.18.1 Advantages of Cooling
      2. 16.18.2 Different Methods of Blade Cooling
    19. Summary for Quick Revision
    20. Multiple-choice Questions
    21. Explanatory Notes
    22. Review Questions
    23. Exercises
    24. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  24. Chapter 17 Jet Propulsion
    1. 17.1 Principle of Jet Propulsion
    2. 17.2 Jet Propulsion Systems
      1. 17.2.1 Screw Propeller
      2. 17.2.2 Ramjet Engine
      3. 17.2.3 Pulse Jet Engine
      4. 17.2.4 Turbo-jet Engine
      5. 17.2.5 Turbo-Prop Engine
      6. 17.2.6 Rocket Propulsion
    3. 17.3 Jet Propulsion v’s Rocket Propulsion
    4. 17.4 Basic Cycle for Turbo-jet Engine
      1. 17.4.1 Thrust
      2. 17.4.2 Thrust Power
      3. 17.4.3 Propulsive Power
      4. 17.4.4 Propulsive Efficiency
      5. 17.4.5 Thermal Efficiency
      6. 17.4.6 Overall Efficiency
      7. 17.4.7 Jet Efficiency
      8. 17.4.8 Ram Air Efficiency
    5. 17.5 Thrust Work, Propulsive Work, and Propulsive Efficiency for Rocket Engine
    6. Summary for Quick Revision
    7. Multiple-choice Questions
    8. Explanatory Notes
    9. Review Questions
    10. Exercises
    11. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  25. Chapter 18 Introduction to Refrigeration
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Refrigeration Systems
    3. 18.3 Methods of Refrigeration
      1. 18.3.1 Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
      2. 18.3.2 Vapour Absorption System
      3. 18.3.3 Ejector-Compression System
      4. 18.3.4 Electro-Lux Refrigeration
      5. 18.3.5 Solar Refrigeration
      6. 18.3.6 Thermo-electric Refrigeration
      7. 18.3.7 Vortex Tube Refrigeration
    4. 18.4 Unit of Refrigeration
    5. 18.5 Refrigeration Effect
    6. 18.6 Carnot Refrigeration Cycle
    7. 18.7 Difference Between a Heat Engine, Refrigerator and Heat Pump
    8. 18.8 Power Consumption of a Refrigerating Machine
    9. 18.9 Air Refrigeration Cycles
      1. 18.9.1 Open Air Refrigeration Cycle
      2. 18.9.2 Closed (or dense) Air Refrigeration Cycle
    10. 18.10 Reversed Carnot Cycle
      1. 18.10.1 Temperature Limitations for Reversed Carnot Cycle
      2. 18.10.2 Vapour as a Refrigerant in Reversed Carnot Cycle
      3. 18.10.3 Gas as a Refrigerant in Reversed Carnot Cycle
      4. 18.10.4 Limitations of Reversed Carnot Cycle
    11. 18.11 Bell-Coleman Cycle (or Reversed Brayton or Joule Cycle)
      1. 18.11.1 Bell-Coleman Cycle with Polytropic Processes
    12. 18.12 Refrigerants
    13. 18.13 Classification of Refrigerants
    14. 18.14 Designation of Refrigerants
    15. 18.15 Desirable Properties of Refrigerants
    16. 18.16 Applications of Refrigerants
    17. 18.17 Eco-friendly Refrigerants
    18. 18.18 Refrigerant Selection
    19. Multiple-choice Questions
    20. Review Questions
    21. Exercises
    22. Answers to Multiple-choice Questions
  26. Chapter 19 Vapour Compression and Vapour AbsorptionSystems
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Comparison of Vapour Compression System with Air Refrigeration System
    3. 19.3 Simple Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
    4. 19.4 Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
    5. 19.5 Use of T-s and p-h Charts
    6. 19.6 Effect of Suction Pressure
    7. 19.7 Effect of Discharge Pressure
    8. 19.8 Effect of Superheating of Refrigerant Vapour
      1. 19.8.1 Superheat Horn
    9. 19.9 Effect of Subcooling (or Undercooling) of Refrigerant Vapour
    10. 19.10 Vapour Absorption System
    11. 19.11 Working Principle of Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System
      1. 19.11.1 Working
    12. 19.12 Advantages of Vapour Absorption System Over Vapour Compression System
    13. 19.13 Coefficient of Performance of an Ideal Vapour Absorption System
    14. 19.14 Ammonia-Water (or Practical) Vapour Absorption System (NH3 – H2O)
    15. 19.15 Lithium Bromide-Water Vapour Absorption System (LiBr-H2O)
      1. 19.15.1 Working Principle
      2. 19.15.2 Lithium Bromide-Water System Equipment
    16. 19.16 Comparison of Ammonia-Water and Lithium Bromide-Water Absorption Systems
    17. Exercises
  27. Chapter 20 Air-Conditioning and Psychrometrics
    1. 20.1 Introduction
    2. 20.2 Principles of Psychrometry
    3. 20.3 Psychrometric Relations
    4. 20.4 Enthalpy of Moist Air
    5. 20.5 Humid Specific Heat
    6. 20.6 Thermodynamic Wet Bulb Temperature or Adiabatic Saturation Temperature (AST)
    7. 20.7 Psychrometric Chart
    8. 20.8 Psychrometric Processes
      1. 20.8.1 Sensible Heating or Cooling Process
      2. 20.8.2 Humidification or Dehumidification Process
      3. 20.8.3 Heating and Humidification
      4. 20.8.4 Sensible Heat Factor-SHF
      5. 20.8.5 Cooling and Dehumidification
      6. 20.8.6 Air Washer
      7. 20.8.7 Cooling with Adiabatic Humidification
      8. 20.8.8 Cooling and Humidification by Water Injection(Evaporative Cooling)
      9. 20.8.9 Heating and Humidification by Steam Injection
      10. 20.8.10 Heating and Adiabatic Chemical Dehumidification
    9. 20.9 Adiabatic Mixing of Two Air Streams
    10. 20.10 Thermal Analysis of Human Body
      1. 20.10.1 Factors Affecting Human Comfort
      2. 20.10.2 Physiological Hazards Resulting from Heat
    11. 20.11 Effective Temperature
      1. 20.11.1 Comfort Chart
      2. 20.11.2 Factors Affecting Optimum Effective Temperature
    12. 20.12 Selection of Inside and Outside Design Conditions
      1. 20.12.1 Selection of Inside Design Conditions
      2. 20.12.2 Selection of Outside Design Conditions
    13. 20.13 Cooling Load Estimation
      1. 20.13.1 Heat Transfer Through Walls and Roofs
      2. 20.13.2 Heat Gain from Solar Radiation
      3. 20.13.3 Sol Air Temperature
      4. 20.13.4 Solar Heat Gain Through Glass Areas
      5. 20.13.5 Heat Gain due to Infiltration
      6. 20.13.6 Heat Gain from Products
      7. 20.13.7 Heat Gain from Lights
      8. 20.13.8 Heat Gain from Power Equipments
      9. 20.13.9 Heat Gain Through Ducts
      10. 20.13.10 Empirical Methods to Evaluate Heat Transfer Through Walls and Roofs
    14. 20.14 Heating Load Estimation
    15. 20.15 Room Sensible Heat Factor (Rshf)
      1. 20.15.1 Estimation of Supply Air Conditions
    16. 20.16 Grand Sensible Heat Factor
    17. 20.17 Effective Room Sensible Heat Factor
    18. 20.18 Air Conditioning Systems
      1. 20.18.1 Summer Air-conditioning System with Ventilation Air and Zero By-pass Factor
      2. 20.18.2 Summer Air-conditioning System with Ventilation Air and By-pass Factor
      3. 20.18.3 Winter Air-conditioning System
      4. 20.18.4 Comfort Air-conditioning System
      5. 20.18.5 Industrial Air-conditioning System
    19. Review Questions Exercises
  28. Appendix A
  29. Index
  30. Copyright