Starting with the 80386 model, Intel microprocessors perform address translation in two different ways called real mode and protected mode. Real mode exists mostly to maintain processor compatibility with older models and to allow the operating system to bootstrap (see Appendix A, for a short description of real mode). We shall thus focus our attention on protected mode.
A logical address consists of two parts: a segment identifier and an offset that specifies the relative address within the segment. The segment identifier is a 16-bit field called Segment Selector, while the offset is a 32-bit field.
To make it easy to retrieve segment selectors quickly, the processor provides segmentation registers whose only purpose is to hold Segment Selectors; these registers are called cs, ss, ds, es, fs, and gs. Although there are only six of them, a program can reuse the same segmentation register for different purposes by saving its content in memory and then restoring it later.
Three of the six segmentation registers have specific purposes:
The code segment register, which points to a segment containing program instructions
The stack segment register, which points to a segment containing the current program stack
The data segment register, which points to a segment containing static and external data
The remaining three segmentation registers are general purpose and may refer to arbitrary segments.
The cs ...