Index

A

acceleration

cursor 14

pointer 222

access control

/etc/Xn.hosts file 547

user-based 548

xdm 548

XDMCP 548

xhost 547

action field (twm window manager) 208

active window 592

aliasing font names 93 - 95

arrays

converting to bitmaps 109, 119

atobm (array to bitmap converter) 109 - 120

authentication widget 535, 538, 544

auro-repeat option (xset) 109, 221

average width (fonts) 87

B

background

colors 225

-background option (-bg) 169

background window see also root window 6

-bd option 169

BDF (Bitmap Display Format) for fonts 549

bdftosnf (font compiler) 549

bell volume (xset) 203, 219

-bg option 169

binding

button/key (.twmrc file) 206

keys 45

tight vs. loose (resources) 184

bitmap (creating graphics) 14, 109 - 118

command boxes 112

description of 109

invoking 109, 112

window 110

Bitmap Display Format (BDF) for fonts 549

-bitmap option (xsetroot) 224, 225

bitmaps

convertingroarrays 109, 119

creating from cursor 119

editing 111

standard 693

bmroa (bitmap to array converter) 109 - 120

Boolean variables 205

border color option (-bd) 169

border width option 168

Bourne shell script 528

bug compatibility mode 220

button

bindings 206

codes 237

command 151, 188, 596

logical 228

-bw option 168

C

C shell script 528

calculator (xcalc) 14 see also xcalc

description 132

function of keys 133

terminating 133

character set 88

character-cell fonts 82

class

definition 184

resource names 184

click-to-type focus

see explicit focus 592

client

command line options 164

customizing 15, 45, 181

definition 12

desk accessories 129

display manager 14

display options 164

location of default values 182

placing 45

removing 141

standalone 14

user-contributed 150

window manager 13

clipboard 72, 191 see also xclipboard

CLIPBOARD selection 65, 191 - 192 see also xclipboard

clock 130 see also oclock

Close (Window Menu) 606

color

changing color name database 550

determining number available 174

displaying 174

for screen elements 169

hexadecimal specification 172

menus 212

problems allocating 551

RGB model 173

specifying root window (xsetroot) 225

colorcell

definition 174

read-only 175

read/write 175, 223

shared 175

colonnap 146, 223

description 174

command boxes (bitmap) 112 - 118

command buttons

Maximize 596

Minimize 596

command button widget 151

command line options (client) 163 - 177, 181

-fn (font) 104

-background 169

-bd (border color) 169

-bg (background) 169

-border color 169

-borderwidth 168

-bw (border width) 168

-display 164

-fn (font) 176

-foreground 169

-geometry 166

-iconic 176

list of standard 163

-name 194

-reverse 177

-title 165

-xrm (set resources) 194

commands

bitmap editing 111

executing system 211

for terminating xtenn window 54

Main Options menu 53

menu 212

pointer 112

Tek Options menu 59

text editing widget 156

VT Options menu 56

console messages 550

context field (twm window manager) 207

Control key 156, 189, 207

conventions of book v

copying selections in xtenn windows 61, 152

and xcutsel 66

create font databases 92 see also mkfontdir

cursor font 633

customizing

clients 15, 181

keyboard 227

mwm 610 - 629

pointer 227

twm 46, 203

xdm 536 - 544

cut buffer strings 61

vs. selections 65

D

database resource 196

DEC VT102 14

-def option (xsetroot) 224

defaults

setting application 182, 187

deiconifying windows 36, 597

Delete key 157

Delete (Twrn menu) 43

deleting windows 43

desk accessories 14, 129 - 139

dialog box widget 151

directories

font 90

display

depth of 174

server 11

setting 219

DISPLAY environment variable 165, 528

display fonts 80, 97 - 98 see also xfd

display manager 14 see also xdm

-display option 164

display window information 144 see also xwininfo

dump file see window dump file

E

-edit option (xrdb) 197

enlarging windows 597, 606

environment variables

DISPLAY 148, 165, 528, 609

TERMCAP 74, 526

XENVIRONMENT 199

error log file (xdm) 539

/etc/ttys (starting X from) 545

event translations 188, 189, 538

syntax 697

events

definition 188

input 188

Exit (Twm menu) 44

exiting

window manager 44

xmag 123

xman program 138

xterm window 25

explicit focus 592

F

feedback boxes 623

-fg option 169

files

.twmrc 35, 45, 46

.Xdefaults 52

.Xresources 45, 51, 52

log 550

resource 181

.twmrc 15, 203

.uwmrc 557

.xinitrc 182, 527

Xreset 536, 542, 544

.Xresources 182

Xresources 536, 542, 544

.xsession 182, 535

Xsession 538

xfd (font displayer) 97 - 105

xset (set display preferences) 219 - 223

xterm (terminal emulator) menus

Main Options 50, 52

xwd (window dump) 140 - 141

Focus (Twm menu) 43

focus policies (mwm)

explicit 592

focus window 43

focusing

definition 8

font displayer see also xfd 15

font path option (xset) 221

fonts see also Release 2 fonts and Release 3 fonts

75-dpi vs 100-dpi 85 - 87

aliases for 93

average width 87

bdftosnf (font compiler) 549

Bitmap Display Format (BDF) 549

bold and demi-bold 84

character set 88

character-cell 82, 87

conventions of in book v

create font databases (mkfontdir) 92

directories 90

display (xfd) 79, 80

displaying (xfd) 79 - 80, 97 - 98

families 81, 90

fonts.dir file 91

foundries 87

italic vs. oblique 84

list available (xlsfonts) 80

making server aware of aliases 95, 549

mkfontdir (create font databases) 92, 549

monospace 87

naming conventions 80

number of fonts available 81

on command line 176

pictures of Release 3 and 4 639

point size 84

previewing (xfontsel) 98

printer 79

proportional 82, 87

reverse italic and reverse oblique 84

screen 79, 176

search path 90, 91

selecting (xfontsel) 80, 98

serif and sans serif 84, 88

Server Natural Format (SNF) 549

set width 87

showsnf (display compiled font) 549

slant 84

style 88

weight 84

wildcarding 88, 89, 90

fonts.alias file 93

fonts.dir file 91, 93, 549

foreground colors 225

-foreground option (-fg) 169

foundries (fonts) 87

-frame option 140

function names field (twm window manager) 208

G

generating display information 149 see also xdpyinfo

-geometry option 166 - 167

-grammar option (xmodmap) 234

graphics

creating with bitmap 109 - 118

magnifying with xmag 122

graphics utilities 109 - 125

-gray option (xsetroot) 224

grip

definition 153

H

-help option (xsetroot) 224

hexadecimal color specification 172

I

icon

definition 7

displaying window as 36

moving 39

starting window as 176

turning a window into 207

icon box 626 - 629

-iconic option 176

Iconify (Twm menu) 36

iconifying windows 25, 36, 596, 605

icons

manipulating 607 - 608

input events 188

instance

definition 184

resource names 184

ISO Latin-1 character set 88

K

key binding 45, 206

keyboard

bell 219

customization 227

preferences 219

shortcuts 36, 45, 557

keyclick volume 220

keycode

definition 229

keys

binding 207

Control 156, 189, 207

Delete 157

mapping 230, 235

Meta 26, 156, 189, 207, 231

modifier 26, 227, 227 - 237

Shift 207

keys field (twm window manager) 207

keystrokes

missing 46

keysym

definition 229

determining 232

mapping 234

values 699

keyword variables 206

Kill (Twm menu) 43

killing

client window 141

oclock 143

server 141

windows 43

with Window Menu button 602

xterm window 25, 54

L

led option (xset) 221

list fonts 80 see also xlsfonts

list variables 206

list window tree 146 see also xlswins

log files 550

logging in 14, 20

logical

font convention 80

keyname 26, 230

pointer button 228

loose bindings 184, 186

Lower

Twm menu 42

Window Menu 606

lowering windows 42

M

magnifying screen 122 see also xmag

Main Options menu 50

commands 53

mode toggles 52

manipulating icons 607 - 608

using Window Menu 607

mapping

definition 188

event-action 190

Meta key 207

modifier keys 227, 230, 236

possibilities with xmodmap 234

translation table 189

Maximize

command button 597 - 598

Window Menu item 606

menus

color 212

creating new 203

defining in .twmrc file 209, 210

executing system commands from 211

Preferences 209

Root Menu (mwm) 608 - 610

Tek Options 49, 58

Tektronix 49

Twm 35, 203

twm (window manager) 50

VT Fonts 57

VT Options 55, 59

Window Menu (mwm) 602 - 608

WindowOps 556

xterm (terminal emulator) 50

-merge option (xrdb) 196

Meta key 26, 156, 189 - 190, 231

definition 207

mapping 207

Minimize

command button 596 - 597

Window Menu item 605

mkfontdir (create font databases) 92, 549

-mod option (xsetroot) 225

mode toggles

Main Options menu 52

Tek Options menu 58

VT Options menu 56

Modes menu see VT Options menu

modifier keys 26, 227

mapping 227 - 237

monospaced fonts 82

Motif (window manager) see mwm

mouse option (xset) 222

Move

Twm menu 39

Window Menu 604

moving

windows 594

on-screen objects 39, 45

mwm (window manager) 591-629

activating changes to 610

client-specific resources 624

component appearance resources 623

customizing 610 - 629

manipulating windows 594

overview 591

restarting 610

selecting windows 592

setting resources 622 - 623

specific resources 624

starting 592

.mwmrc file

customizing mwm through 610

N

-name option 194

naming conventions

fonts 80

New Window command

Root Menu 609

New Window (WindowOps menu) 558

numeric variables 206

O

occluded

definition 40

oclock (analog clock) 27, 130 - 131, 206, 213

killing 131, 143

options see command line options

OSF/Motif (window manager) 591 - 629 see also mwm

P

pasting selections in xterm windows 64, 152

and xcutsel 66

path

including X in 526

pipes and pointer interaction 141

point size 84

pointer

acceleration 222

bindings 206

buttons 237

commands 112

context of 207

customization 227

defining button functions 206

definition 7

mapping 236

possible cursor images 633

pointer button see button

pointer button field (twm window manager) 206

postscript translation 15 see also xpr

Preferences menu example of 209

PRIMARY selection 61, 152

printer fonts see fonts

printing utilities 140 - 141

proportional fonts 82

Q

Quit command (Main Options menu) 54

R

Raise (Twm Menu) 41

raising windows 41, 42, 598

read-only colorcell 175, 223

read/write colorcell 175, 223

redrawing windows 55

Refresh command

Root Menu 610

refreshing the screen 550

Release 2 fonts

directory 104

vs. subsequent releases 104

Release 3 fonts

aliasing 93

create font databases (mkfontdir) 92, 549

directories 90

fonts.dir file 91, 549

making server aware of aliases 95, 549

pictures of 639

Release 4 fonts

directories 90

pictures of 639

removing windows 43

resize 74

Resize (Twm menu) 38

resizing windows 38, 74

problems due to 38

using pointer 599

resource database manager 15, 192, 181 see also xrdb

RESOURCE_MANAGER property 195

resources

class names of 184, 185

client-specific 624

component appearance 623

event translations of 188 - 192

files of 181

instance names of 184, 185

list of common 187

management of 181, 195 - 199

precedence rules for 185

removing definitions 197

sample file 193

setting 181 - 199, 195

setting with mwm 622

specific appearance 624

specification of 181, 183, 185

syntax of 182, 183

tight vs. loose bindings 186

translation table of 188

Restart

Root Menu 610

Twm menu 44

restarting mwm 610

Restore (Window Menu) 607

-reverse option 177

reverse video 177, 225

RGB

color model 173 - 174

values 225

Root Menu

New Window command 609

Refresh command 610

Restart command 610

Shuffle Down command 609

Shuffle Up command 609

root window 224

definition 6

setting (xsetroot) 224

-rv option 177

S

screen

magnifying 122

resolution 85, 86, 87

saver option (xset) 222

screen fonts see fonts

scripts

Bourne shell 528

C shell 528

startup 527 - 530, 538

scrollbar

creating in xterm window 59

VT Options menu 59

widget 152

search path

including X in 526

setting 22

security issues

/etc/Xn.hosts file 547

user-based access 548

xdm 548

XDMCP 548

xhost 547

selections

copying 61, 152

manipulating 65

pasting 64, 152

saving multiple 68, 72

text 62

vs. cut buffers 65

Send CONT signal command (Main Options menu) 54

Send HUP Signal command (Main Options menu) 54

Send INT Signal command (Main Options menu) 53

Send KILL Signal command (Main Options menu) 54

Send STOP signal conunand (Main Options menu) 54

Send TERM Signal conunand (Main Options menu) 54

server

closing connection 141

control access (xdm) 548

control access (xhost) 547

definition 11

display 11

starting 19, 527

Server Natural Format (SNF) for fonts 549

set width (fonts) 87

shell environment variables ee environment variables

shell scripts

Bourne 528

C 528

startup 527

Shift key 207

showsnf (display compiled font) 549

Shuffle Down (Root Menu) 609

Shuffle Up (Root Menu) 609

Size (Window Menu) 605

SNF see Server Natural Format 549

-solid option (xsetroot) 225

spacing (fonts) 87

stacked windows

changing order of 40, 42

starting X 19 - 30

bringing up window manager 23

BSD 4.3 545

from /etc/ttys 545

placing clients 45

setting search path 526

setting terminal type 526

steps for 22

System V 545

xdm (display manager) 531 - 544

xinit (start X server) 22, 545

startupscripts 528, 538

submenu 210

system management 525 - 551

system.mwmrc file 612 - 619

T

Tek Options menu 50

conunands 59

description of items 58

mode toggles 58

Tektronix 4014 14

temporary xterm windows

running commands in 75

TERMCAP

environment variable 526

entry for xterm 74

terminal emulator 49 see also xterm

definition 14

terminal type

setting 526

xterm 73

terminating xterm window 25, 54, 176

text

copying and pasting 61, 64, 66, 72

string variables 205

switching buffer and selection (xcutsel) 66

text editing widget 154, 156

thumb (scrollbar)

definition 152

tight bindings 184, 186

title area of window 594

-title option 165

titlebar 595

description 7

in twm window manager 23, 34 - 35

in xterm window 20

titlebutton bindings 206

Toolkit options see command line options

toolkits

definition 182

translation table

definition 188

example of 190

mappings in 189

syntax 190, 697 - 701

Twm menu 35 - 45

Delete 43

Exit 44

Focus 43

Iconify 36

Kill 43

Lower 42

Move 39

Raise 41

redesigning 203

Resize 38

Restart 44

twm (window manager) 13, 22

action field 208

and stacking windows 40

background processes 23

bringing up 23, 535

context field 207

customizing 46, 203

defining keys 207

example of modified 213

exiting 44

function names field 208

keys field 207

menus 50

overview 33

placing clients 45

pointer button field 206

restarting 44

setting variables 205

titlebars 34 - 35

Twm menu 35

.twmrc file 35

.twmrc file 15, 35, 45 - 46, 203 - 216

button/key bindings 206

changing defaults 205

example of 203

menus defined by 209 - 210

modifying 213

setting variables 205

U

UNIX commands

running in temporary xterm 75

user-contributed clients 150

Utilities menu

example of 209

uwm (window manager) 13

overview 555

.uwmrc file 557

WindowOps menu 556

.uwmrc file 557

V

variables 165 see also environment variables

Boolean 205

keyword 206

list 206

numeric 206

resource 167

setting .twmrc 205

vertical panes 153

viewport widget 154

Vpaned widget 153

VT Fonts menu 50

description of items 57

VT Options menu 50

Allow 80/132 Column Switching 56

description of items 55

mode toggles 56

VT102 (DEC) 14

Modes menu 55

VT Options menu 55

W

widget

attributes 184

authentication 535, 538, 544

binding (loose vs. tight) 184

command button 151

defining conventions 184

definition 150

dialog box 151

hierarchy 183

scrollbar 152

text editing 154, 156

viewport 154

Vpaned 153

wildcarding font names 88 - 90

window dump 14 see also xwd

window dump file

creating (xwd) 140

displaying (xwud) 140

printing 140

to printer (xdpr) 141

undumping (xwud) 141

window manager 13, 33 - 46, 203 see also twm, uwm, mwm

steps for starting 23

Window Menu

Close 606

displaying 602

Lower 606

manipulating icons with 607

Maximize 606

Minimize 605

Move 604

reasons for using 602

removing menu 604

Restore 607

selecting items 603

Size 605

Window Menu command button 602

WindowOps menu

New Window 558

windows

creating 22, 23, 558

definition 6

deiconifying 36, 597

displayed as icons 36

displaying information about 144

enlarging 597

exiting xterm 25

focus 43

geometry of 166

hierarchy of 146

icon box 626

iconifying 25, 36, 596

killing (Twm menu) 43

killing (Window Menu button) 602

killing (xkill) 141

lowering 42

manipulating 33, 555

manipulating (mwm) 594

maximizing 596

minimizing 596

moving 39, 594

raising 41, 42, 598

redrawing 55

resizing 38, 74, 558, 599

root 6, 224

selecting (mwm) 592

stacked 40, 42

starting as icon 176

switching focus between 25

Tektronix 49

terminating 54

title 165

title area 594

vertically tiled 153

width of 168

X

X Window System

description of 5

display server 11

ovetView of architecture 10

xbiff (mail notification) 133, 212

xcalc (calculator) 14, 132 - 133, 212, 528, 598

xclipboard (save text selections) 65, 68, 191

Release 3 72

xclock (analog or digital clock) 14, 130 - 131, 206

killing 130

xcutsel (exchange cut buffer and selection) 65, 66

.Xdefaults file 52

vs. xrdb 192

.Xdefaults file see .Xresources

xdm (display manager) 14

access control features 548

authentication widget 535, 538, 544

configuration file 532

customizing 536 - 544

error log file 539

login window 20

standard session 535

starting X with 531 - 544

stopping xdm and the server 540

Xreset 539

Xresources file 538, 544

.xsession file 538

Xsession file 538

Xstartup 539

xdpr (window dump to printer) 141

xdpyinfo (list display information) 149

xedit (text editor) 71, 154, 207

XENVIRONMENT environment variable 199

xev (track events) 232

xfd (font displayer) 15, 80, 95, 141

xfontsel (select font) 80

xhost (control access to server) 547

xinit (start X server) 22, 527, 545

.xinitrc file 527

xkill (remove window) 141 - 144

xload (poll system load average) 28, 134

xlsclients (list running clients) 148 - 149

xlsfonts (list available fonts) 80

xlswins (list window tree) 146 - 148

xmag (magnify screen portion) 122 - 125

description of 122

quitting 123

xman

as a viewport 154

xman (display manual pages) 135

Release 3 138

xmodmap (modifier key and pointer customization) 227 - 237

change map 233 - 237

display key map 230

display pointer map 236

grammar option 234

xpr (postscript translation) 15, 140 - 141

xrdb (resource database manager) 15, 192 - 199, 527

-edit option 197

loading new values to 196

querying 196

removing definitions 197

saving definitions 197

setting resources with 195

syntax 195

using 195

xrefresh (refresh screen) 55, 610

Xreset file 536, 542, 544

.Xresources file 15, 51, 52, 182, 536, 538, 542, 544

sample 193

.xresources file

customizing mwm through 610

-xrm option 194

.xsession file 535, 538

Xsession file 538

xset (set display preferences) 14, 91, 210

auto display option 221

auto-repeat option 109

font path option 221

mouse option 222

xsetroot (set root window characteristics) 224 - 237

-bitmap option 224

-def option 224

xterm menus 49 - 59 see also Main Options menu, Tek Options menu, Vt Options menu

Modes 50

Tek Options 49 - 50

Tektronix 49 - 50

VT Fonts 50

VT Options 50

xterm 50

xterm (terminal emulator)

and termcap 526

control sequences 681

creating window(s) 22, 558

default size 45

multiple xterms 23

overview 14, 49

pasting and copying selections 152

running command in temporary window 75

scrollbar 59

Tektronix window 49

TERMCAP 74

terminal type 73

terminating 25, 54

xwd (window dump) 14

xwininfo (display window information) 144 - 146

xwud (window undumper) 140, 141

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