P-type and n-type semiconductor material
Forward and reverse-biased p–n junction
Bipolar junction transistors
Transistor as an amplifier
Field effect transistors
Seven segment displays
The transistor, most commonly used in electronic circuits, was invented in 1948. The first integrated circuit (IC) came in the market in the mid 1960s. Through continuous research and development, very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits have been brought in use, resulting in gradual ...