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Basic Mechanical Engineering, 2e, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Basic Mechanical Engineering

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. About Pearson
  3. Title Page
  4. Brief Contents
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the Second Edition
  7. Preface to the First Edition
  8. About the Author
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. 1 CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS AND PROPERTIES OF GASES
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Important Terminologies Used in Thermodynamics
    3. 1.3 Specific Heat Capacity
    4. 1.3.1 Specific Heat at Constant Volume (Cv)
    5. 1.3.2 Specific Heat at Constant Pressure (CP)
    6. 1.3.3 Relationship Between Cp and Cv
    7. 1.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. 1.4.1 Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
      2. 1.4.2 Internal Energy
      3. 1.4.3 Physical Interpretation of Internal Energy
      4. 1.4.4 Energy Transfer Across the System Boundary (Heat and Work)
      5. 1.4.5 Non-flow Processes
      6. 1.4.6 Application of First Law of Thermodynamics in Steady Flow Process and Variable Flow Process
      7. 1.4.7 Limitations of First Law of Thermodynamics
    8. 1.5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. 1.5.1 Kelvin–Planck Statement
      2. 1.5.2 Clausius Statement
      3. 1.5.3 Equivalence of Kelvin–Planck and Clausius Statement
    9. 1.6 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
    10. 1.7 The Carnot Cycle
    11. 1.8 The Clausius Inequality
    12. 1.9 Entropy and Entropy Generation
      1. 1.9.1 Entropy
      2. 1.9.2 Entropy Generation
      3. 1.9.3 Entropy Balance
      4. 1.9.4 Evaluation of Entropy Change
    13. 1.10 Third Law of Thermodynamics
    14. 1.11 Gas Laws
      1. 1.11.1 Boyle’s Law
      2. 1.11.2 Charles’s Law
      3. 1.11.3 Gay–Lussac’s Law
      4. 1.11.4 The Combined Gas Law
      5. 1.11.5 Gas Constant
    15. Points to Remember
    16. Important Formulae
    17. Multiple-choice Questions
    18. Fill in the Blanks
    19. Review Questions
    20. Exercise Problems
  11. 2 FUELS AND COMBUSTION
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Coal
      1. 2.2.1 Analysis of Coal
      2. 2.2.2 Advantages of Solid Fuels over the Liquid Fuels
    3. 2.3 Liquid Fuels
      1. 2.3.1 Petroleum
      2. 2.3.2 Kerosene
      3. 2.3.3 Diesel
      4. 2.3.4 Gasoline
      5. 2.3.5 Calorific Value of Liquid Fuels
      6. 2.3.6 Major Contents of Liquid Fuels
      7. 2.3.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Liquid Fuels over Solid Fuels
    4. 2.4 Gaseous Fuels
      1. 2.4.1 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
      2. 2.4.2 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
      3. 2.4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Gaseous Fuels over the Solid Fuels
    5. 2.5 Biofuels
      1. 2.5.1 Bioalcohols
      2. 2.5.2 Biodiesel
      3. 2.5.3 Green Diesel
      4. 2.5.4 Vegetable Oil
      5. 2.5.5 Biogas
      6. 2.5.6 Bioethers
      7. 2.5.7 Syngas
      8. 2.5.8 Solid Biofuels
      9. 2.5.9 Scope of Second-generation Biofuels
    6. 2.6 Combustion
      1. 2.6.1 Principle of Combustion
    7. 2.7 Determination of Calorific Value of Fuel Using Bomb Calorimeter
    8. Points to Remember
    9. Important Formulae
    10. Review Questions
    11. Exercise Problems
  12. 3 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING AND SOURCES OF ENERGY
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Prime Movers
      1. 3.2.1 Historical Development of Prime Movers
    3. 3.3 Power Plant Engineering
      1. 3.3.1 Thermal Power Plant
      2. 3.3.2 Hydroelectric Power Plant
      3. 3.3.3 Nuclear Power Plant
      4. 3.3.4 Diesel Power Plant
      5. 3.3.5 Tidal Power Plant
      6. 3.3.6 The Geothermal Power Plant
      7. 3.3.7 Windmill
    4. 3.4 Sources of Energy
      1. 3.4.1 Renewable Energy
      2. 3.4.2 Non-renewable Energy
    5. Points to Remember
    6. Multiple Choice Questions
    7. Answers
    8. Review Questions
  13. 4 PROPERTIES OF STEAM AND STEAM GENERATORS
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Formation of Steam at Constant Pressure
    3. 4.3 Throttling Calorimeter
    4. 4.4 Separating and Throttling Calorimeter
    5. 4.5 Steam Table
    6. 4.6 Mollier Diagram or h–S Chart
    7. 4.7 Steam Generators/Boilers
      1. 4.7.1 Classification of Boilers
      2. 4.7.2 Requirements of a Good Boiler
      3. 4.7.3 Cochran Boiler
      4. 4.7.4 Babcock and Wilcox Boiler
      5. 4.7.5 Locomotive Boiler
      6. 4.7.6 Lancashire Boiler
      7. 4.7.7 Cornish Boiler
    8. 4.8 Boiler Mountings
      1. 4.8.1 Safety Valves
      2. 4.8.2 High Steam Low Water Safety Valve
      3. 4.8.3 Water Level Indicator
      4. 4.8.4 Pressure Gauge
      5. 4.8.5 Feed Check Valve
      6. 4.8.6 Steam Stop Valve
      7. 4.8.7 Blow-off Cock
      8. 4.8.8 Fusible Plug
      9. 4.8.9 Manhole
    9. 4.9 Boiler Accessories
      1. 4.9.1 Economizer
      2. 4.9.2 Air Preheater
      3. 4.9.3 Superheater
      4. 4.9.4 Feed Pump
      5. 4.9.5 Injector
      6. 4.9.6 Steam Trap
      7. 4.9.7 Steam Separator
      8. 4.9.8 Pressure Reducing Valve
    10. 4.10 Performance of Boilers
    11. Points to Remember
    12. Important Formulae
    13. Multiple-choice Questions
    14. Fill in the Blanks
    15. Review Questions
    16. Exercise Problems
  14. 5 STEAM AND GAS TURBINES
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Steam Engines and their Working Principles
      1. 5.2.1 Modified Rankine Cycle: Theoretical Indicator Diagram
      2. 5.2.2 Rankine Cycle
    3. 5.3 Steam Turbines
      1. 5.3.1 Classification of Steam Turbine
      2. 5.3.2 Compounding of Impulse Turbine
      3. 5.3.3 Impulses-reaction Turbine (Reaction Turbine)
      4. 5.3.4 Differences Between Impulse and Reaction Turbines
      5. 5.3.5 Losses in Steam Turbines
      6. 5.3.6 Governing of Steam Turbines
    4. 5.4 Gas Turbines
      1. 5.4.1 Classification of Gas Turbine
      2. 5.4.2 Applications of Gas Turbines
      3. 5.4.3 Gas Turbine Cycle with Regenerator
      4. 5.4.4 Gas Turbine Cycle with Reheating and Intercooling
    5. Points to Remember
    6. Important Formulae
    7. Objective Questions
    8. Fill in the Blanks
    9. Review Questions
    10. Exercise Problems
  15. 6 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Classification of I.C. Engines
    3. 6.3 Basic Structure of I.C. Engines
      1. 6.3.1 Nomenclature
    4. 6.4 Working Principle of I.C. Engines
      1. 6.4.1 Four-stroke Spark Ignition Engine
      2. 6.4.2 Four-stroke Compression Ignition Engine
      3. 6.4.3 Two-stroke Spark Ignition Engine
      4. 6.4.4 Two-stroke C.I. Engine
      5. 6.4.5 Comparison Between Four-stroke and Two-stroke Engines
      6. 6.4.6 Comparison Between S.I. and C.I. Engines
      7. 6.4.7 Comparison Between Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle
    5. 6.5 Valve Timing Diagrams
      1. 6.5.1 Valve Timing Diagram for Four-stroke S.I. Engines
      2. 6.5.2 Port Timing Diagram for Two-stroke S.I. Engines
      3. 6.5.3 Valve Timing Diagram for Four-stroke C.I. Engine
    6. 6.6 Otto Cycle
    7. 6.7 Diesel Cycle
    8. 6.8 Dual Cycle
    9. 6.9 Engine Performance Parameters
    10. 6.10 Emission Control
      1. 6.10.1 Types of Emissions
      2. 6.10.2 Emission Control Techniques
    11. 6.11 Some Recent Developments in Automotive Technology
      1. 6.11.1 Multi-point Fuel Injection
      2. 6.11.2 Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI)
      3. 6.11.3 Hybrid Engine
    12. Points to Remember
    13. Important Formulae
    14. Multiple-choice Questions
    15. Fill in the Blanks
    16. Review Questions
    17. Exercise Problems
  16. 7 HEAT TRANSFER
    1. 7.1 Introduction
      1. 7.1.1 Conduction
      2. 7.1.2 Convection
      3. 7.1.3 Radiation
      4. 7.1.4 Combined Heat Transfer
    2. Points to Remember
    3. Important Formulae
    4. Multiple-choice Questions
    5. Review Questions
    6. Exercise Problems
  17. 8 REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Refrigerator and Heat Pump
    3. 8.3 Components of Refrigeration System
      1. 8.3.1 Evaporator
      2. 8.3.2 Compressor
      3. 8.3.3 Condenser
      4. 8.3.4 Expansion Valve
    4. 8.4 Types of Refrigeration Systems
      1. 8.4.1 Air-refrigeration System
      2. 8.4.2 Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
      3. 8.4.3 Absorption Refrigeration Cycle
    5. 8.5 Type of Refrigerants
    6. 8.6 Domestic Refrigerator
    7. 8.7 Psychrometry
    8. 8.8 Psychrometric Processes
      1. 8.8.1 Psychrometric Chart
    9. 8.9 Air Washers
    10. 8.10 Human Comfort Conditions
    11. 8.11 Room Air Conditioner
      1. 8.11.1 Window Air Conditioner
      2. 8.11.2 Split Air Conditioner
      3. 8.11.3 Difference Between Split and Window ACs
    12. Points to Remember
    13. Important Formulae
    14. Multiple-choice Questions
    15. Review Questions
    16. Exercise Problems
  18. 9 FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES
    1. FLUID MECHANICS
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Properties of Fluids
      1. 9.2.1 Density
      2. 9.2.2 Viscosity
      3. 9.2.3 Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids
      4. 9.2.4 Surface Tension
      5. 9.2.5 Capillarity
      6. 9.2.6 Pressure Variation with Depth
    4. 9.3 Bernoulli’s Equation
    5. 9.4 Types of Flow
      1. HYDRAULIC MACHINES
    6. 9.5 Introduction
    7. 9.6 Hydraulic Turbines
      1. 9.6.1 Classification of Hydraulic Turbines
    8. 9.7 Terminology Used in Turbine
    9. 9.8 Pelton Turbine
      1. 9.8.1 Main Components of Pelton Turbine
      2. 9.8.2 Selection of Speed of Pelton Turbine
      3. 9.8.3 Velocity Triangle for Pelton Turbine
    10. 9.9 Francis Turbine
      1. 9.9.1 Main Components of Francis Turbine
      2. 9.9.2 Different Shapes of Draft Tubes
    11. 9.10 Kaplan Turbine
      1. 9.10.1 Velocity Triangle for Kaplan Turbine
    12. 9.11 Governing of Turbines
    13. 9.12 Pumps
    14. 9.13 Centrifugal Pump
      1. 9.13.1 Main Components of Centrifugal Pump
      2. 9.13.2 Velocity Triangle for Centrifugal Pump
      3. 9.13.3 Various Heads and Efficiencies of Centrifugal Pumps
      4. 9.13.4 Some Important Points Related to Centrifugal Pump
    15. 9.14 Reciprocating Pump
      1. 9.14.1 Air Vessels
    16. 9.15 Gear Pump
    17. 9.16 Vane Pump
    18. 9.17 Lobe Pump
    19. 9.18 Screw Pump
      1. 9.18.1 Two-screw, Low-pitch, Screw Pump
      2. 9.18.2 Three-screw, High-pitch, Screw Pump
    20. Points to Remember
    21. Important Formulae
    22. Multiple-choice Questions
    23. Review Questions
    24. Exercise Problems
  19. 10 AIR COMPRESSORS
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Classification of Compressors
    3. 10.3 Reciprocating Compressors
      1. 10.3.1 Polytropic Compression
      2. 10.3.2 Isothermal Compression
      3. 10.3.3 Effect of Clearance on Work Done
      4. 10.3.4 Volumetric Efficiency
      5. 10.3.5 Multistage Compression
      6. 10.3.6 Work Done in Multistage Compression
    4. 10.4 Rotary compressors
      1. 10.4.1 Fixed Vane Type Compressors
      2. 10.4.2 Multiple Vane Type Rotary Compressors
    5. 10.5 Centrifugal Compressors
    6. 10.6 Axial Flow Compressors
    7. Points to Remember
    8. Important Formulae
    9. Multiple-choice Questions
    10. Fill in the Blanks
    11. Review Questions
    12. Exercise Problems
  20. 11 CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Determination of Position of Centroid of Plane Geometric Figures
      1. 11.2.1 Center of Gravity, Center of Mass, and Centroid of an Irregular Shape
      2. 11.2.2 Centroid of I-section
      3. 11.2.3 Centroid of U-section
      4. 11.2.4 Centroid of H-section
      5. 11.2.5 Centroid of L-section
      6. 11.2.6 Centroid of T-section
      7. 11.2.7 Centroid of C-section
      8. 11.2.8 Centroid of Circular Arc
      9. 11.2.9 Centroid of Semicircular-section of a Disc
      10. 11.2.10 Centroid of a Sector of a Circular Disc
      11. 11.2.11 Centroid of a Parabola
      12. 11.2.12 Centroid of a Triangle
    3. 11.3 Second Moment of Area
      1. 11.3.1 Radius of Gyration
      2. 11.3.2 Theorem of Perpendicular Axis
      3. 11.3.3 Theorem of Parallel Axis
      4. 11.3.4 Moment of Inertia from First Principle
      5. 11.3.5 Moment of Inertia of Some Composite Sections
    4. 11.4 Center of Gravity of Solids
    5. 11.5 Mass Moment of Inertia
      1. 11.5.1 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Circular Ring
      2. 11.5.2 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Circular Disc
      3. 11.5.3 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Hollow Cylinder
      4. 11.5.4 Mass Moment of Inertia of Sphere
      5. 11.5.5 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Circular Cone
    6. Points to Remember
    7. List of Mass Moment of Inertia
    8. List of Area Moment of Inertia
    9. Important Formulae
    10. Multiple-choice Questions
    11. Review Questions
    12. Exercise Problems
  21. 12 STRESS AND STRAIN
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Hooke’s Law
    3. 12.3 Stress–Strain Diagram
    4. 12.4 Extension in Varying Cross-section or Taper Rod
    5. 12.5 Stress and Strain in Varying Cross-section Bar of Uniform Strength
    6. 12.6 Stress and Strain in Compound Bar
    7. 12.7 Stress and Strain in an Assembly of Tube and Bolt
    8. 12.8 Stress and Strain in Composite Bar
    9. 12.9 Temperature Stress
    10. 12.10 Stress and Strain Due to Suddenly Applied Load
    11. 12.11 Stress and Strain for Impact Load
    12. 12.12 Relation Between Stress and Volumetric Strain
    13. 12.13 Relation Between Modulus of Elasticity and Bulk Modulus
    14. 12.14 Relation Between Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of Rigidity
    15. Points to Remember
    16. Important Formulae
    17. Multiple-choice Questions
    18. Review Questions
    19. Exercise Problems
  22. 13 MACHINE ELEMENTS
    1. SPRINGS
    2. 13.1 Introduction
    3. 13.2 Types of Springs
    4. 13.3 Materials used for Springs
    5. 13.4 Shear Stress in Helical Springs
    6. 13.5 Deflection in Helical Spring
    7. 13.6 Series and Parallel Connection of Helical Springs
    8. CAM AND FOLLOWER
    9. 13.7 Introduction
    10. 13.8 Types of Cams
    11. 13.9 Types of Followers
    12. BUSHING AND ROLLER BEARING
    13. 13.10 Introduction
    14. 13.11 Bushing Materials
    15. 13.12 Bearings
      1. 13.12.1 Sliding Contact or Bush Bearings
      2. 13.12.2 Rolling Contact Bearings
      3. 13.13 Properties of Bearing Materials
    16. 13.14 Bearing Materials
    17. Points to Remember
    18. Important Formulae
    19. Multiple-choice Questions
    20. Review Questions
    21. Exercise Problems
  23. 14 FLYWHEEL AND GOVERNORS
    1. FLYWHEEL
    2. 14.1 Introduction
    3. 14.2 Mass Moment of Inertia of Flywheel
    4. GOVERNORS
    5. 14.3 Introduction
    6. 14.4 Terminology Used in Governors
    7. 14.5 Classification of Governors
    8. 14.6 Gravity Controlled Centrifugal Governors
      1. 14.6.1 Watt Governor
      2. 14.6.2 Porter Governor
      3. 14.6.3 Proell Governor
    9. 14.7 Spring Controlled Centrifugal Governor
      1. 14.7.1 Hartnell Governor
      2. 14.7.2 Willson–Hartnell Governor
      3. 14.7.3 Hartung Governor
    10. 14.8 Sensitiveness of Governors
    11. 14.9 Governing of I.C. Engines
      1. 14.9.1 Qualitative Governing
      2. 14.9.2 Quantitative Governing
      3. 14.9.3 Hit and Miss Governing
    12. 14.10 Differences Between Flywheel and Governors
    13. Points to Remember
    14. Important Formulae
    15. Multiple-choice Questions
    16. Review Questions
    17. Exercise Problems
  24. 15 POWER TRANSMISSION DEVICES
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Belt Drive
      1. 15.2.1 Type of Belt Cross-sections
      2. 15.2.2 Velocity Ratio
      3. 15.2.3 Creep
      4. 15.2.4 Flat Belt Drives
      5. 15.2.5 Ratio of Tensions
      6. 15.2.6 Effect of Centrifugal Force on Belt Drive
    3. 15.3 Rope Drive
    4. 15.4 Chain Drive
      1. 15.4.1 Chain Length
      2. 15.4.2 Types of Chain
    5. 15.5 Gear Drive
      1. 15.5.1 Gear Terminology
      2. 15.5.2 Law of Gearing
      3. 15.5.3 Forms of Teeth
    6. 15.6 Classification of Gears
      1. 15.6.1 Parallel Shafts
      2. 15.6.2 Intersecting Shaft
    7. Points to Remember
    8. Important Formulae
    9. Multiple-choice Questions
    10. Fill in the Blanks
    11. Review Questions
    12. Exercise Problems
  25. 16 COUPLINGS, CLUTCHES, AND BRAKES
    1. COUPLINGS
    2. 16.1 Introduction
    3. 16.2 Rigid Coupling
    4. 16.3 Flexible Bushed Coupling
    5. 16.4 Universal Joint
    6. CLUTCHES
    7. 16.5 Introduction
    8. 16.6 Single Plate Clutch
    9. 16.7 Multi-plate Disc Clutch
    10. 16.8 Cone Clutch
    11. 16.9 Centrifugal Clutch
    12. BRAKES
    13. 16.10 Introduction
      1. 16.10. 1 Block or Shoe Brake
      2. 16.10.2 Band Brake
      3. 16.10.3 Band and Block Brake
      4. 16.10.4 Internal Expanding Shoe Brake
    14. Points to Remember
    15. Important Formulae
    16. Multiple-choice Questions
    17. Review Questions
    18. Exercise Problems
  26. 17 ENGINEERING MATERIALS
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials
    3. 17.3 Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials
      1. 17.3.1 Tensile Test
      2. 17.3.2 Hardness
    4. 17.4 Impact Test
    5. 17.5 Classification of Engineering Materials
      1. 17.5.1 Ferrous Metals
      2. 17.5.2 Non-ferrous Metals
      3. 17.5.3 Plastics
      4. 17.5.4 Abrasive Materials
      5. 17.5.5 Ceramics
      6. 17.5.6 Silica
      7. 17.5.7 Glasses
    6. Points to Remember
    7. Multiple-choice Questions
    8. Review Questions
  27. 18 MECHANICAL MEASUREMENT
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Temperature Measurement
      1. 18.2.1 Thermocouple
      2. 18.2.2 Resistance Temperature Devices (RTD)
      3. 18.2.3 Infrared Temperature Measurement Devices
      4. 18.2.4 Bimetallic Temperature Measurement Devices
      5. 18.2.5 Fluid-expansion Temperature Measurement Devices
      6. 18.2.6 Change-of-state Temperature Measurement Devices
    3. 18.3 Pressure Measurement
      1. 18.3.1 Manometers
      2. 18.3.2 Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge
      3. 18.3.3 Low Pressure Measurement
    4. 18.4 Velocity Measurement
      1. 18.4.1 Velocity Measurement of Fluid with Pitot Tube
      2. 18.4.2 Hot Wire Anemometer
    5. 18.5 Flow Measurement
      1. 18.5.1 Flow Measurement Through Velocity of Fluid Over Known Area
      2. 18.5.2 Orificemeter
      3. 18.5.3 Rotameter
    6. 18.6 Strain Measurement
      1. 18.6.1 Strain Gauge
    7. 18.7 Force Measurement
      1. 18.7.1 Cantilever Beam
    8. 18.8 Torque Measurement
      1. 18.8.1 Prony Brake Dynamometer
      2. 18.8.2 Rope Brake Dynamometer
      3. 18.8.3 Torque Measurement by Pointer and Scale
    9. 18.9 Measurement Errors
    10. 18.10 Uncertainties of Measurement
    11. 18.11 Vernier calipers
    12. 18.12 Micrometer or Screw Gauge
      1. 18.12.1 Measurement Procedure
    13. 18.13 Dial Gauge or Dial Indicator
    14. 18.14 Slip Gauges
      1. 18.14.1 Classification of Slip Gauges
      2. 18.14.2 Applications of Slip Gauge
    15. 18.15 Sine Bar
    16. 18.16 Combination Set
    17. Points to Remember
    18. Multiple-choice Questions
    19. Review Questions
  28. 19 METAL CUTTING AND MACHINE TOOLS
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Mechanism of Metal Cutting
      1. 19.2.1 Types of Chip Formation
    3. 19.3 Orthogonal and Oblique Metal Cutting
    4. 19.4 Lathe
      1. 19.4.1 Classification of Lathes
      2. 19.4.2 Specifications of Lathe
      3. 19.4.3 Constructional Detail of Lathe
      4. 19.4.4 Power Transmission System in Lathe Machine
      5. 19.4.5 Cutting Tools Used in Lathe
      6. 19.4.6 Types of Operations on Lathe Machine
    5. 19.5 Shaper, Slotter, and Planer
      1. 19.5.1 Shaping and Planing
      2. 19.5.2 Constructional Detail of Shaper
      3. 19.5.3 Slotter Machine
      4. 19.5.4 Crank and Slotted Arm Quick Return Mechanism
      5. 19.5.5 Specification of Shaper
      6. 19.5.6 Constructional Detail of Planer
      7. 19.5.7 Fast and Loose Pulleys Driving Mechanism of Planer
      8. 19.5.8 Specifications of Planer
      9. 19.5.9 Difference Between Shaper and Planer
    6. 19.6 Drilling Machine
      1. 19.6.1 Driving Mechanism in Drilling Machine
      2. 19.6.2 Drill Bit
      3. 19.6.3 Specifications of a Drilling Machine
      4. 19.6.4 Operations Performed on Drilling Machine
      5. 19.6.5 Advanced Types of Drilling Machine
    7. 19.7 Boring
      1. 19.7.1 Specification of Boring Machines
    8. 19.8 Milling Machines
      1. 19.8.1 Constructional Detail of Milling Machine
      2. 19.8.2 Basic Milling Operations
      3. 19.8.3 Nomenclature of Milling Cutter
    9. 19.9 Grinding Machines
      1. 19.9.1 Grinding Wheel Specification
      2. 19.9.2 Methods of Grindings
      3. 19.9.3 Cylindrical Grinders
      4. 19.9.4 Plain Cylindrical Grinders
      5. 19.9.5 Plain Surface Grinders
      6. 19.9.6 Universal Cylindrical Grinders
      7. 19.9.7 Centerless Grinders
    10. Points to Remember
    11. Multiple-choice Questions
    12. Fill in the Blanks
    13. Review Questions
  29. 20 CASTING AND WELDING
    1. CASTING
    2. 20.1 Introduction
    3. 20.2 Classification of Casting Process
    4. 20.3 Sand Casting
      1. 20.3.1 Steps in Sand Casting
      2. 20.3.2 Pattern Making
      3. 20.3.3 Types of Pattern
      4. 20.3.4 Mould Making
      5. 20.3.5 Properties of Mouldings Sands
      6. 20.3.6 Hand Tools Used in Moulding
      7. 20.3.7 Moulding Procedure
      8. 20.3.8 Gating System
      9. 20.3.9 Chills
      10. 20.3.10 Chaplets
      11. 20.3.11 Cores
      12. 20.3.12 Sand Testing
    5. 20.4 Special Casting Methods
      1. 20.4.1 Gravity/Permanent Mould Casting
      2. 20.4.2 Die Casting
      3. 20.4.3 Centrifugal Casting
    6. 20.5 Casting Defects
    7. 20.6 Surface Cleaning of the Casting
    8. WELDING
    9. 20.7 Introduction
      1. 20.7.1 Definition of Welding
    10. 20.8 Classification of Welding Process
    11. 20.9 Gas Welding
      1. 20.9.1 Oxyacetylene Welding
      2. 20.9.2 Gas Welding Methods
    12. 20.10 Electric Arc Welding
      1. 20.10.1 Functions of Electrode Coatings
      2. 20.10.2 Ingredients of Electrode Coating
      3. 20.10.3 Selection of Electrodes
      4. 20.10.4 Specifications for Electrodes
    13. 20.11 Types of Electric Arc Welding
      1. 20.11.1 Carbon Arc Welding
      2. 20.11.2 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
      3. 20.11.3 Metal Inert Gas Arc Welding (MIG)/Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
      4. 20.11.4 Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding (TIG)/Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
      5. 20.11.5 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
      6. 20.11.6 Electroslag Welding
      7. 20.11.7 Atomic Hydrogen Welding
      8. 20.11.8 Plasma Arc Welding
    14. 20.12 Resistance Welding
      1. 20.12.1 Resistance Spot Welding
      2. 20.12.2 Resistance Seam Welding
      3. 20.12.3 Resistance Projection Welding
      4. 20.12.4 Flash Welding
      5. 20.12.5 Percussion Welding
      6. 20.12.6 Resistance Butt Welding
    15. 20.13 Thermit Welding
    16. 20.14 Welding Allied Processes
      1. 20.14.1 Soldering
      2. 20.14.2 Brazing
      3. 20.14.3 Braze Welding
    17. 20.15 Welding Defects
    18. Points to Remember
    19. Multiple-choice Questions
    20. Fill in the Blanks
    21. Review Questions
  30. 21 MECHANICAL WORKING OF METALS, SHEET METAL WORK, POWDER METALLURGY, AND SMITHY
    1. MECHANICAL WORKING PROCESS
    2. 21.1 Introduction
      1. 21.1.1 Advantages of Mechanical Working Process Over Other Manufacturing Processes
    3. 21.2 Rolling
      1. 21.2.1 Terminology
      2. 21.2.2 Types of Rolling Mills
      3. 21.2.3 Rolling Defects
    4. 21.3 Forging
      1. 21.3.1 Different Types of Forging
    5. 21.4 Extrusion
      1. 21.4.1 Hot Extrusion
      2. 21.4.2 Cold Extrusion
      3. 21.4.3 Impact Extrusion
    6. 21.5 Wire Drawing
    7. 21.6 Bar Drawing
    8. 21.7 Tube Drawing
    9. 21.8 High Energy Rate Forming
      1. 21.8.1 Explosive Forming
      2. 21.8.2 Electrohydraulic Forming
      3. 21.8.3 Electromagnetic Forming
    10. 21.9 Thread Rolling
    11. 21.10 Piercing or Seamless Tubing
    12. 21.11 Some Other Forming Processes
    13. SHEET METAL PROCESS
    14. 21.12 Introduction
    15. 21.13 Sheet Metal Joints
    16. 21.14 Materials Used for Sheet Metal
    17. 21.15 Hand Tools Used in Sheet Metal Work
    18. 21.16 Sheet Metal Operations
      1. 21.16.1 Shearing
      2. 21.16.2 Bending
      3. 21.16.3 Stretch Forming
      4. 21.16.4 Deep Drawing
      5. 21.16.5 Hot Spinning
    19. POWDER METALLURGY
    20. 21.17 Introduction
    21. 21.18 Manufacturing of Metal Powders
      1. 21.18.1 Characteristics of Metal Powder
      2. 21.18.2 Methods of Production
    22. 21.19 Blending/Mixing of the Metal Powders
    23. 21.20 Compacting
    24. 21.21 Sintering
    25. 21.22 Finishing Operations
    26. 21.23 Advantages of Powder Metallurgy
    27. 21.24 Limitations of Powder Metallurgy
    28. 21.25 Applications of Powder Metallurgy
    29. SMITHY
    30. 21.26 Introduction
    31. 21.27 Major Tools Used in Smithy Shop
      1. 21.27.1 Smith’s Forge or Hearth
      2. 21.27.2 Anvil
      3. 21.27.3 Hammer
      4. 21.27.4 Swage Block
      5. 21.27.5 Tongs
      6. 21.27.6 Chisels
      7. 21.27.7 Punches
      8. 21.27.8 Flatters
      9. 21.27.9 Set Hammer
      10. 21.27.10 Fullers
      11. 21.27.11 Swages
    32. Points to Remember
    33. Multiple-choice Questions
    34. Fill in the Blanks
    35. Review Questions
  31. 22 MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: NC, CNC, DNC, AND ROBOTICS
    1. 22.1 Introduction
      1. 22.1.1 Production Machines, Tools, Fixtures, and Other Related Hardware
      2. 22.1.2 Material Handling System
      3. 22.1.3 Computer Systems
      4. 22.1.4 Human Workers
    2. 22.2 Automation
    3. 22.3 Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
    4. 22.4 CAD/CAM
      1. 22.4.1 Computer Aided Design (CAD)
      2. 22.4.2 Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
    5. 22.5 Numerical Control (NC)
      1. 22.5.1 Limitations/Drawback of Conventional NC System
    6. 22.6 Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
    7. 22.7 Programming Methods
    8. 22.8 Comparison of NC and CNC Machines
    9. 22.9 Direct Numerical Control (DNC)
    10. ROBOTICS
    11. 22.10 Introduction
    12. 22.11 Robot Anatomy
    13. 22.12 Three Degree of Freedom for Robot’s Wrist
    14. 22.13 Robot Configurations
    15. 22.14 Robot Control
      1. 22.14.1 Type of Robot Control
    16. 22.15 Control Systems
      1. 22.15.1 Basic Form of Control Systems
      2. 22.15.2 Sequential Control
      3. 22.15.3 Microprocessor Based Controllers
      4. 22.15.4 Sensors Used in Robotics
      5. 22.15.5 Transducers used in Robotics
    17. 22.16 Applications of Robots
    18. Points to Remember
    19. Multiple-choice Questions
    20. Review Questions
  32. 23. HEAT TREATMENT
    1. 23.1 Introduction
    2. 23.2 Iron–Carbon Phase Diagram
    3. 23.3 TTT (Time–Temperature–Transformation) Diagram
    4. 23.4 Normalizing
    5. 23.5 Annealing
    6. 23.6 Spheroidizing
    7. 23.7 Hardening
    8. 23.8 Tempering
      1. 23.8.1 Austempering
      2. 23.8.2 Martempering
    9. 23.9 Carburizing
    10. 23.10 Cyaniding
    11. 23.11 Nitriding
    12. 23.12 Induction Hardening
    13. Points to Remember
    14. Multiple-choice Questions
    15. Fill in the Blanks
    16. Review Questions
  33. Appendix 1: Mollier Diagram for Steam
  34. Appendix 2: Steam Table
  35. Index
  36. Copyright