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Biofuels for Aviation

Book Description

Biofuels for Aviation: Feedstocks, Technology and Implementation presents the issues surrounding the research and use of biofuels for aviation, such as policy, markets, certification and performance requirements, life cycle assessment, and the economic and technical barriers to their full implementation. Readers involved in bioenergy and aviation sectors—research, planning, or policy making activities—will benefit from this thorough overview.

The aviation industry’s commitment to reducing GHG emissions along with increasing oil prices have sparked the need for renewable and affordable energy sources tailored to this sector’s very specific needs. As jet engines cannot be readily electrified, turning to biofuels is the most viable option. However, aviation is a type of transportation for which traditional biofuels, such as bioethanol and biodiesel, do not fulfill key fuel requirements. Therefore, different solutions to this situation are being researched and tested around the globe, which makes navigating this scenario particularly challenging.

This book guides readers through this intricate subject, bringing them up to speed with its current status and future prospects both from the academic and the industry point of view. Science and technology chapters delve into the technical aspects of the currently tested and the most promising technology in development, as well as their respective feedstocks and the use of additives as a way of adapting them to meet certain specifications. Conversion processes such as hydrotreatment, synthetic biology, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and Fisher-Tropsch are explored and their results are assessed for current and future viability.

  • Presents the current status of biofuels for the aviation sector, including technologies that are currently in use and the most promising future technologies, their production processes and viability
  • Explains the requirements for certification and performance of aviation fuels and how that can be achieved by biofuels
  • Explores the economic and policy issues, as well as life cycle assessment, a comparative techno-economic analysis of promising technologies and a roadmap to the future
  • Explores conversion processes such as hydrotreatment, synthetic biology, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and Fisher-Tropsch

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Preface
  7. Section I: An Overview of the Sector
    1. Chapter 1. The Prospects for Biofuels in Aviation
      1. Abstract
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Growth in Air Transportation, Fuel Use, and CO2 Emissions
      4. 1.3 Government and Industry Initiatives to Control Air Transportation CO2 Emissions
      5. 1.4 Transportation System CO2 Intensity
      6. 1.5 Aircraft CO2 Intensity
      7. 1.6 Reducing Air Transportation CO2 Intensity
      8. 1.7 Biofuels for Aviation: Opportunities and Challenges
      9. 1.8 Conclusions
      10. References
    2. Chapter 2. Feedstocks for Aviation Biofuels
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 Feedstocks for Bio-Derived Aviation Fuels
      3. 2.2 Challenges and Opportunities
      4. 2.3 Summary
      5. References
    3. Chapter 3. Certification and Performance: What Is Needed from an Aviation Fuel?
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 Introduction to Relevant Standards
      3. 3.2 Discussion of Some Drop-In Fuel Property Requirements
      4. 3.3 Speculation on Possible Future Changes in ASTM 7566 Requirements
      5. 3.4 Prospects for All-New, Non-Drop-In Fuels
      6. References
  8. Section II: The Science and Technology of Developing Biofuels for Aviation
    1. Chapter 4. The Suitability of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) as Blending Agents in Jet A-1
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 An Introduction to FAME in Jet A-1
      3. 4.2 Methods Used in the Testing of FAME Components in Jet-A1
      4. 4.3 Application and Testing of Specific FAME Blends
      5. 4.4 Material Compatibility With DFAME
      6. 4.5 Conclusions
      7. Acknowledgements
      8. References
    2. Chapter 5. Aviation Biofuels Through Lipid Hydroprocessing
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Effect of Catalysts on Lipid Hydroprocessing
      4. 5.3 Kinetics, Reaction Mechanisms, and Pathways
      5. 5.4 Path Forward and Challenges
      6. 5.5 Conclusion
      7. References
    3. Chapter 6. Low-Carbon Aviation Fuel Through the Alcohol to Jet Pathway
      1. Abstract
      2. Acronyms and Abbreviations
      3. 6.1 Introduction
      4. 6.2 Background
      5. 6.3 Approaches to Producing Synthetic Paraffin Kerosene (SPK) Jet Fuel From Ethanol
      6. 6.4 Adjusting the Aromatic Content of the Product
      7. 6.5 Market Drivers for Ethanol to Jet Fuel
      8. 6.6 Conclusions and Recommendations
      9. Acknowledgements
      10. References
    4. Chapter 7. Metabolic Engineering Strategies to Convert Carbohydrates to Aviation Range Hydrocarbons
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Fatty Acid-Derived Aviation Range Biofuels
      4. 7.3 Isoprenoids as Aviation Fuels
      5. References
    5. Chapter 8. Pyrolysis of Biomass for Aviation Fuel
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Pyrolysis Feedstocks
      4. 8.3 Bio-oil Composition and Properties
      5. 8.4 Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass
      6. 8.5 Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass
      7. 8.6 Jet Fuel-Specific Pyrolysis
      8. 8.7 Conclusions and Final Remarks
      9. References
    6. Chapter 9. Towards an Aviation Fuel Through the Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Hydrothermal Processing of Algal Feedstocks
      4. 9.3 Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Microalgae
      5. 9.4 Macroalgae as a Feedstock: Prospects and Challenges
      6. 9.5 Characteristics of Bio-Crude Oil From Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae
      7. 9.6 Continuous HTL Systems and Challenges in Advancing the Technology
      8. 9.7 Process Integration for an Advanced Biorefinery
      9. 9.8 Conclusions and Future Direction
      10. References
    7. Chapter 10. Aviation Turbine Fuels Through the Fischer–Tropsch Process
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Molecular Properties Required by Aviation Turbine Fuels
      4. 10.3 Composition of Products From Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis
      5. 10.4 Jet Fuel Blending Components From Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis
      6. 10.5 On-Specification Jet Fuel From Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis
      7. 10.6 Conclusions
      8. References
    8. Chapter 11. Current and Potential Aviation Additives for Higher Biofuel Blends in Jet A-1
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Approved Additives for Alternative Fuels
      4. 11.3 Looking to the Future: Potential Additives for Alternative Fuels
      5. References
  9. Section III: Testing, Assessment and the Future
    1. Chapter 12. Life Cycle Assessment of Biojet Fuels
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Historical Aspects and Definitions
      4. 12.3 LCA Guidelines
      5. 12.4 LCA of Biojet Fuels
      6. 12.5 Final Comments
      7. References
    2. Chapter 13. Government Policy on Delivering Biofuels for the Aviation Sector
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 Biofuels in the Aviation Sector – Current Status and Expectations
      3. 13.2 Policies Influencing the Market Introduction of Biojet Fuels
      4. 13.3 Sustainability and Certification Issues
      5. 13.4 Conclusion and Outlook: What Is Necessary to Bring Biojet Fuels into the Markets
      6. References
    3. Chapter 14. Sustainable Aviation: A UK Roadmap for Sustainable Aviation Fuels
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Sustainability
      4. 14.3 Developing Sustainable Fuels
      5. 14.4 Sustainable Fuel Supply Potential
      6. 14.5 The UK Value in Developing Sustainable Fuels
      7. 14.6 Overcoming Development Barriers
      8. 14.7 Enabling Sustainable Fuels in the United Kingdom
      9. 14.8 The Sustainable Aviation Fuels Roadmap
      10. References
    4. Chapter 15. Roadmap to a Sustainable Aviation Biofuel: A Brazilian Case Study
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Agricultural Feedstocks in Brazil: Existing and Potentially Available
      4. 15.3 Availability of Land in Brazil for Biofuels
      5. 15.4 Sustainability of Aviation Biofuel Production in Brazil
      6. 15.5 Possible Pathways for Biofuels for Aviation in Brazil
      7. 15.6 Roadmap Summary for Brazil: Limiting Factors and Policy Recommendations
      8. 15.7 Conclusions
      9. Acknowledgements
      10. References
  10. Appendix A. Standard and Alternative Fuel Specifications
    1. A.1 Fuel Additives
    2. A.2 Jet A, Jet A-1, and JP-8 Specifications
    3. A.3 Approved Nonconventional Fuels
    4. A.4 Jet-P 9 and 10 Select Specifications
  11. Appendix B. Commercial Biofuel Flight Demonstrations (Data Collected by Innovate Washington 2013)
  12. Index