O'Reilly logo

e-Learning and the Science of Instruction by Richard E. Mayer, Ruth C. Clark

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

CHAPTER 12 Leveraging Examples in e-Learning

CHAPTER SUMMARY

In this chapter we review research on one of the most effective methods to reduce cognitive load associated with learning complex tasks. A worked example is a step-by-step demonstration of how to complete a task. Worked examples have been shown to increase learning and efficiency of learning in a wide range of skill domains, including mathematics, science, negotiating, solving legal cases, writing, and collaboration, to name a few. Although you are likely familiar with worked examples, we find that many instructional professionals do not exploit them fully. In this chapter we review evidence on how to design and develop worked examples and optimize engagement with them.

Since our third edition of e-Learning and the Science of Instruction, there continues to be a research focus on how best to use worked examples. Several studies have shown that, rather than pairing examples with practice problems, equally effective outcomes can be achieved by providing examples on their own. Second, research indicates that worked examples are most beneficial when the content is complex—in other words when the essential load is high. As learners gain more expertise, the essential load diminishes, at which point worked examples should be replaced by practice problems. As in our previous editions, we discuss the application of the multimedia design principles to worked examples as well as design techniques to promote learning for far ...

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required