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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction by Richard E. Mayer, Ruth C. Clark

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CHAPTER 13 Does Practice Make Perfect?

CHAPTER SUMMARY

In this chapter we offer five important evidence-based principles to guide your development and distribution of, as well as follow-up to practice exercises in multimedia learning environments. First, there is considerable evidence that well-developed practice interactions promote learning—especially in asynchronous e-learning. To maximize the benefits of these practice interactions, we present evidence and examples for the following principles:

  • Include sufficient practice to achieve the learning objective.
  • Require learners to respond in job-realistic ways.
  • Incorporate effective feedback to learner responses.
  • Distribute practice among the learning events rather than aggregated in one location.
  • Apply the multimedia principles we reviewed in Chapters 4 through 10.

Recent research on feedback offers new recommendations since our previous edition. These include providing explanatory rather than corrective feedback, giving explanations that address the task and the process to achieve the task, and minimizing ego-focusing feedback such as praise or normative scores.

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