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Engineering Chemistry

Book Description

Designed for the course on Engineering Chemistry offered to first year undergraduate students of engineering, this book aims to strengthen fundamental concepts and highlight the applications of chemistry in the field of engineering. Written in a simple and lucid manner, this book covers a broad spectrum of topics including water technology, alternate energy resources, science of corrosion and green chemistry. It also includes a large number of end-of-chapter exercises, which test student understanding and are also a valuable resource from the examination point of view.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Forword
  5. Preface
  6. About the Authors
  7. 1. Water Technology
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Sources of Water
    3. 1.3 Types of Impurities Present in Water
    4. 1.4 Hard Water and Hardness
    5. 1.5 Determination of Hardness
    6. 1.6 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
    7. 1.7 Determination of Chlorides in Water
    8. 1.8 Determination of Acidity in Water
    9. 1.9 Alkalinity of Water
    10. 1.10 Disadvantages of Hard Water
    11. 1.11 Quality of Water for Domestic Use
    12. 1.12 Treatment of Water for Domestic Use
    13. 1.13 Break-Point Chlorination
    14. 1.14 Boilers and Boiler Troubles
    15. 1.15 Softening of Water
    16. 1.16 Desalination
    17. 1.17 Review Questions
    18. Fill in the Blanks
    19. Multiple-choice Questions
    20. Short Answer Questions
    21. Descriptive Questions
    22. Problems for Practice
  8. 2. Polymers
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Degree of Polymerisation
    3. 2.3 Classification of Polymers
      1. 2.3.1 Classification Based on Source
      2. 2.3.2 Classification Based on Composition
      3. 2.3.3 Classification Based on Chemical Composition
      4. 2.3.4 Classification Based on Structure
      5. 2.3.5 Classification Based on Mode of Polymerisation
      6. 2.3.6 Classification Based on the Molecular Forces
      7. 2.3.7 Classification Based on Tacticity
    4. 2.4 Types of Polymerization
      1. 2.4.1 Condensation Polymerisation or Step Polymerisation
      2. 2.4.2 Addition/Vinyl/Chain Polymerisation
      3. 2.4.3 Coordination Polymerisation
    5. 2.5 Molecular Mass of a Polymer
    6. 2.6 Plastics
    7. 2.7 Important Polymers—Composition, Preparation, Properties and Engineering Uses
      1. 2.7.1 Thermoplastics
      2. 2.7.2 Thermosetting Plastics
    8. 2.8 Rubber (Elastomers)
      1. 2.8.1 Processing of Natural Rubber
      2. 2.8.2 Gutta–Percha
      3. 2.8.3 Vulcanisation of Rubber
      4. 2.8.4 Compounding of Rubber
      5. 2.8.5 Synthetic Rubbers or Artificial Rubber
      6. 2.8.6 Important Artificial Rubbers
    9. 2.9 Reinforced or Filled Plastics
      1. 2.9.1 Composition
      2. 2.9.2 Nature of Polymers Used
      3. 2.9.3 Application of Filled Plastics (Reinforced Plastics)
    10. 2.10 Biopolymers
      1. 2.10.1 Major Feed Stocks for Biopolymers
      2. 2.10.2 Preparation Methods
      3. 2.10.3 Important Biodegradable Polymers
      4. 2.10.4 Importance of Biopolymers in Sustainable Development
    11. 2.11 Conducting Polymers
      1. 2.11.1 Intrinsically Conducting Polymer (ICP) or Conjugated π-Electrons Conducting Polymer
      2. 2.11.2 Conducting Polyaniline
      3. 2.11.3 Extrinsically Conducting Polymers
    12. 2.12 Polyphosphazenes/Phosphonitrilic Polymers
    13. 2.13 Composites
      1. 2.13.1 Constituents of Composites
      2. 2.13.2 Classification of Composites
      3. 2.13.3 Advantages of Composites over Conventional Materials
      4. 2.13.4 Applications of Composites
    14. 2.14 Review Questions
    15. Fill in the Blanks
    16. Multiple-choice Questions
    17. Short Answer Questions
    18. Descriptive Questions
  9. 3. Fuels and Combustion
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Classification of Fuels
    3. 3.3 Units of Heat
    4. 3.4 Calorific Value
    5. 3.5 Determination of Calorific Value
      1. 3.5.1 Bomb Calorimeter
      2. 3.5.2 Junker’s Calorimeter
    6. 3.6 Characteristics of Good Fuel
    7. 3.7 Solid Fuels
      1. 3.7.1 Coal
      2. 3.7.2 Analysis of Coal
      3. 3.7.3 Metallurgical Coke
      4. 3.7.4 Manufacture of Metallurgical Coke
    8. 3.8 Liquid Fuels
      1. 3.8.1 Petroleum Refining
      2. 3.8.2 Important Petroleum Products and their Uses
    9. 3.9 Synthetic Petrol
      1. 3.9.1 Cracking
      2. 3.9.2 Fischer–Trapsch Method
      3. 3.9.3 Bergius Method
    10. 3.10 Power Alcohol
      1. 3.10.1 Manufacture of Power Alcohol
    11. 3.11 Knocking
    12. 3.12 Diesel Engine, Cetane and Octane Number
    13. 3.13 Gaseous Fuels
      1. 3.13.1 Natural Gas
      2. 3.13.2 Producer Gas (or) Suction Gas
      3. 3.13.3 Water Gas (or) Blue Gas
      4. 3.13.4 Coal Gas
      5. 3.13.5 Biogas
    14. 3.14 Flue Gas Analysis by Orsats Apparatus
    15. 3.15 Review Questions
    16. Fill in the Blanks
    17. Multiple-choice Questions
    18. Short Answer Questions
    19. Descriptive Questions
  10. 4. Alternate Energy Resources
    1. 4.1 Introduction
      1. 4.1.1 Conventional or Traditional Energy Resources
      2. 4.1.2 Nonconventional Energy Resources or Renewable Energy Sources
      3. 4.1.3 Alternative Energy
    2. 4.2 Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices
      1. 4.2.1 Solar Energy
      2. 4.2.2 Wind Energy
      3. 4.2.3 Geothermal Energy
      4. 4.2.4 Water Power
      5. 4.2.5 Biomass
      6. 4.2.6 Nuclear Energy
      7. 4.2.7 Nuclear Reactions
    3. 4.3 Review Questions
    4. Fill in the Blanks
    5. Multiple-choice Questions
    6. Short Answer Questions
    7. Descriptive Questions
  11. 5. Electrochemistry and Batteries
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Electrolysis
      1. 5.2.1 Laws of Electrolysis
    3. 5.3 Electrolytic Conduction
      1. 5.3.1 Factors Affecting Electrolytic Conduction
      2. 5.3.2 Electrical Resistance and Conductance
      3. 5.3.3 Specific, Equivalent and Molar Conductivities
      4. 5.3.4 Equivalent Conductivity
      5. 5.3.5 Molar Conductivity
      6. 5.3.6 Measurement of Electrolytic Conductance
      7. 5.3.7 Variation of Conductivity with Concentration
      8. 5.3.8 Conductance Behaviour of Strong Electrolyte
      9. 5.3.9 Conductance Behaviour of Weak Electrolyte
    4. 5.4 Kohlrausch’s Law of Independent Migration of Ions
    5. 5.5 Conductometric Titrations
    6. 5.6 Electrochemical Cells
    7. 5.7 Types of Electrodes
    8. 5.8 Reference Electrode
    9. 5.9 Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE)
      1. 5.9.1 Electrochemical Circuit and Working of ISE
      2. 5.9.2 Types of Ion – Selective Membranes
      3. 5.9.3 Applications of Ion Selective Electrodes
    10. 5.10 Glass Electrode
      1. 5.10.1 Construction of Glass Electrode
    11. 5.11 Concentration Cell
    12. 5.12 Potentiometric Titrations
    13. 5.13 Electrochemical Sensors
      1. 5.13.1 Potentiometric Sensor
      2. 5.13.2 Analysis of Glucose in Blood
      3. 5.13.3 Analysis of Urea
    14. 5.14 Voltammetry
      1. 5.14.1 Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV)
      2. 5.14.2 Ferric Fe3+/Fe2+ System
      3. 5.14.3 Cyclic Voltammetry
      4. 5.14.4 Applications of Voltammetry
    15. 5.15 Batteries
      1. 5.15.1 Advantages of Batteries
      2. 5.15.2 Disadvantages of Batteries
    16. 5.16 Review Questions
    17. Fill in the Blanks
    18. Multiple-choice Questions
    19. Short Answer Questions
    20. Solved Numerical Problems
    21. Descriptive Questions
    22. Problems for Practice
  12. 6. Science of Corrosion
    1. 6.1 Introduction
      1. 6.1.1 Causes of Corrosion
      2. 6.1.2 Types of Corrosion
    2. 6.2 Galvanic Series
      1. 6.2.1 Factors Affecting Corrosion
    3. 6.3 Protection from Corrosion (Preventive Measures for Corrosion Control)
    4. 6.4 Review Questions
    5. Fill in the Blanks
    6. Multiple-choice Questions
    7. Short Answer Questions
    8. Descriptive Questions
  13. 7. Chemistry of Engineering Materials
    1. 7.1 Semiconducting and Super Conducting Materials
      1. 7.1.1 Semiconductor
      2. 7.1.2 Applications of Semiconductors
      3. 7.1.3 Superconductors
    2. 7.2 Magnetic Materials
      1. 7.2.1 General Properties of Magnetic Materials
      2. 7.2.2 Classification of Magnetic Materials
      3. 7.2.3 Applications of Magnetic Materials
    3. 7.3 Cement
      1. 7.3.1 Classification of Cement
      2. 7.3.2 Raw Materials used in the Manufacture of Portland Cement
      3. 7.3.3 Manufacture of Portland Cement
      4. 7.3.4 Chemical Composition of Portland Cement and its Importance
      5. 7.3.5 Setting and Hardening of Cement
      6. 7.3.6 ISI Specifications of Cement
      7. 7.3.7 Analysis of Cement
      8. 7.3.8 Plaster of Paris/Gypsum Plaster
    4. 7.4 Refractories
      1. 7.4.1 Characteristics of Good Refractory Materials
      2. 7.4.2 Failures of Refractory Materials
      3. 7.4.3 Classification of Refractories
      4. 7.4.4 Properties of Refractories
      5. 7.4.5 Manufacture of High-Alumina Bricks, Magnesite Bricks and Zirconia Bricks
    5. 7.5 Lubricants
      1. 7.5.1 Important Functions of Lubricants
      2. 7.5.2 Mechanism of Lubrication
      3. 7.5.3 Classification of Lubricants
      4. 7.5.4 Properties of Lubricants
      5. 7.5.5 Redwood Viscometer
      6. 7.5.6 Engler’s Viscometer
      7. 7.5.7 Saybolt Viscometer
      8. 7.5.8 U-Tube Viscometer
      9. 7.5.9 Conversion of Redwood, Engler and Saybolt Viscosities into Absolute Units
    6. 7.6 Explosives and Propellants
      1. 7.6.1 Some Important Terms about Explosives
      2. 7.6.2 Classification of Explosives
      3. 7.6.3 Precautions during Storage of Explosives
      4. 7.6.4 Blasting Fuses
      5. 7.6.5 Important Explosives and their Preparation
      6. 7.6.6 Rocket Propellants
      7. 7.6.7 Characteristics of a Good Propellant
      8. 7.6.8 Classifications of Propellants
    7. 7.7 Nanomaterials
      1. 7.7.1 Synthesis of Nanomaterials
      2. 7.7.2 Characterisation
      3. 7.7.3 Importance
      4. 7.7.4 Broad Classification of Nanomaterials
      5. 7.7.5 Fullerenes
      6. 7.7.6 Types of Fullerenes
      7. 7.7.7 Properties of Nanomaterials
      8. 7.7.8 Applications of Nanomaterials
    8. 7.8 Liquid Crystals
      1. 7.8.1 Characteristics of Liquid Crystal Phase
      2. 7.8.2 Classification of Liquid Crystals
      3. 7.8.3 Thermotropic Liquid Crystals
      4. 7.8.4 Lyotropic Liquid Crystals
      5. 7.8.5 Chemical Properties of Liquid Crystals
      6. 7.8.6 Applications of Liquid Crystals
    9. 7.9 Abrasives
      1. 7.9.1 Hardness of Abrasive
      2. 7.9.2 Natural Abrasives
      3. 7.9.3 Artificial Abrasives
    10. 7.10 Review Questions
    11. Fill in the Blanks
    12. Multiple-choice questions
    13. Short Answer Questions
    14. Descriptive Questions
  14. 8. Phase Rule
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Explanation of the Terms Involved in Phase Equilibria
      1. 8.2.1 Phase (P)
      2. 8.2.2 Components (C)
      3. 8.2.3 Degree of Freedom (F)
      4. 8.2.4 True and Metastable Equilibrium
      5. 8.2.5 Eutectic Mixture and Eutectic Point
      6. 8.2.6 Triple Point
    3. 8.3 Phase Rule
      1. 8.3.1 Assumptions for the Validation of Phase Rule
      2. 8.3.2 Thermodynamic Derivation of the Phase Rule
      3. 8.3.3 Utility of Phase Rule | Application of Phase Rule
      4. 8.3.4 Limitations of Phase Rule
    4. 8.4 Phase Diagrams
    5. 8.5 One Component System
    6. 8.6 Two Component System
      1. 8.6.1 Eutectic System
      2. 8.6.2 Lead (Pb) – Silver (Ag) System
    7. 8.7 Heat Treatment of Steel
    8. 8.8 Review Questions
    9. Fill in the Blanks
    10. Multiple-choice Questions
    11. Short Answer Questions
    12. Solved Numerical Problems
    13. Descriptive Questions
  15. 9. Photochemistry
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Light Source in Photochemistry
    3. 9.3 Laws of Photochemistry
      1. 9.3.1 Grotthuss–Draper Law or The First Law of Photochemistry
      2. 9.3.2 Stark-Einstein Law or Photochemical Equivalence Law
      3. 9.3.3 Beer-Lambert Law
    4. 9.4 Photophysical and Chemical Processes
      1. 9.4.1 Photophysical Process
      2. 9.4.2 Photochemical Process
    5. 9.5 Quantum Yield and Quantum Efficiency
    6. 9.6 Photosensitisation
    7. 9.7 Photodynamic Therapy
    8. 9.8 Important Photochemical Reactions
    9. 9.9 Review Questions
    10. Fill in the Blanks
    11. Multiple-choice Questions
    12. Short Answer Questions
    13. Descriptive Questions
  16. 10. Surface Chemistry
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Adsorption
      1. 10.2.1 Mechanism of Adsorption
      2. 10.2.2 Adsorption is Exothermic
      3. 10.2.3 Difference between Adsorption and Absorption
      4. 10.2.4 Examples of Adsorption, Absorption, and Sorption
      5. 10.2.5 Positive and Negative Adsorptions
      6. 10.2.6 Classification of Adsorption
      7. 10.2.7 Factors Affecting the Adsorption of Gases by Solids
      8. 10.2.8 Adsorption Isotherms
      9. 10.2.9 Applications of Adsorption
    3. 10.3 Colloidal State
      1. 10.3.1 Types of Solution
      2. 10.3.2 Classification of Colloids
      3. 10.3.3 Properties of Colloidal Solutions
      4. 10.3.4 Applications of Colloids
    4. 10.4 Review Questions
    5. Fill in the Blanks
    6. Multiple-choice Questions
    7. Short Answer Questions
    8. Long Answer Questions
  17. 11. Thermodynamics
    1. 11.1 Introduction
      1. 11.1.1 Thermodynamic Terms and Basic Concepts
    2. 11.2 Types of Thermodynamic Systems
      1. 11.2.1 Isolated System
      2. 11.2.2 Closed System
      3. 11.2.3 Open System
    3. 11.3 Intensive and Extensive Properties
      1. 11.3.1 Intensive Property
      2. 11.3.2 Extensive Property
      3. 11.3.3 State Variables
    4. 11.4 Reversible and Irreversible Process
      1. 11.4.1 Reversible Process
      2. 11.4.2 Irreversible Process
      3. 11.4.3 Thermodynamic Processes
      4. 11.4.4 Isothermal Process or Isothermal Change
      5. 11.4.5 Indicator Diagram
      6. 11.4.6 Work Done by a System in an Adiabatic Process
      7. 11.4.7 First Law of Thermodynamics and its Application
      8. 11.4.8 Second Law of Thermodynamics
      9. 11.4.9 Carnot’s Engine, Efficiency
      10. 11.4.10 Working of Carnot’s Engine
      11. 11.4.11 Absolute Zero
      12. 11.4.12 Numerical Problems Based on Carnot’s Cycle
      13. 11.4.13 Solved Numerical Problems Based on Isothermal and Adiabatic Process
    5. 11.5 Thermodynamic Potentials and Maxwell Equations
      1. 11.5.1 Thermodynamic Potential
      2. 11.5.2 Internal Energy (U)
      3. 11.5.3 Total Heat Function (H)
      4. 11.5.4 Helmholtz Function (F)
      5. 11.5.5 Gibb’s Free Energy or Gibb’s Function (G)
      6. 11.5.6 Maxwell’s Equations
      7. 11.5.7 Clausius–Clapeyron Equation
      8. 11.5.8 Derivation of the Stefan–Boltzmann Law using Maxwell’s Equations
      9. 11.5.9 Joule–Thomson Effect or Joule–Kelvin Effect
    6. 11.6 Review Questions
    7. Fill in the Blanks
    8. Multiple-choice Questions
    9. Short Answer Questions
    10. Descriptive Questions
  18. 12. Metals in Biological System
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Essential Elements
      1. 12.2.1 Bulk Elements
      2. 12.2.2 Macrominerals
      3. 12.2.3 Micro Elements (Trace Elements)
    3. 12.3 Non-Essential Elements
    4. 12.4 Important Metals in Biological Systems
      1. 12.4.1 Haemoglobin
      2. 12.4.2 Myoglobin
      3. 12.4.3 Vitamin B12
      4. 12.4.4 Chlorophyll
    5. 12.5 Metals and their Toxicity
      1. 12.5.1 Toxicity of Arsenic
      2. 12.5.2 Toxicity of Lead
      3. 12.5.3 Toxicity of Mercury
    6. 12.6 Review Questions
    7. Fill in the Blanks
    8. Multiple-choice Questions
    9. Short Answer Questions
    10. Descriptive Questions
  19. 13. Organometallic Compounds
    1. 13.1 Introduction
      1. 13.1.1 Organometallic Chemistry Timeline
    2. 13.2 Organolithium Compounds
      1. 13.2.1 Preparation of Organolithium Compounds
      2. 13.2.2 Properties of Organolithium Compounds
    3. 13.3 Organomagnesium Compounds
      1. 13.3.1 Preparation of Organomagnesium Compounds
      2. 13.3.2 Properties of Organomagnesium Compounds
    4. 13.4 Metal Carbonyls
      1. 13.4.1 Ligand
      2. 13.4.2 Effective Atomic Number
      3. 13.4.3 Preparation of Carbonyls
      4. 13.4.4 Properties of Carbonyls
      5. 13.4.5 Structure of Carbonyls
    5. 13.5 Review Questions
    6. Fill in the Blanks
    7. Multiple-choice Questions
    8. Short Answer Questions
    9. Descriptive Questions
  20. 14. Coordination Chemistry
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Basic Requirements to Formation of Coordination Compound
    3. 14.3 Nomenclature of Metal Complexes
      1. 14.3.1 Cationic Complex
      2. 14.3.2 Anionic Complex
      3. 14.3.3 Nonionic Complexes
      4. 14.3.4 Polynuclear Complex
      5. 14.3.5 Complex with Metal-Metal Bond
    4. 14.4 Theories of Coordination Chemistry
      1. 14.4.1 Werner’s Theory
      2. 14.4.2 Sidgwick’s Electronic Concept Theory
      3. 14.4.3 Valance Bond Theory
      4. 14.4.4 Crystal Field Theory
      5. 14.4.5 Common Single Atomic Ligands and their Field Strength
      6. 14.4.6 Molecular Orbital Theory of Coordination Complexes
    5. 14.5 Factors Affecting the Stability of Coordination Compounds
    6. 14.6 Determination of Complex Ion Formation
    7. 14.7 Stability of Coordination Compounds
    8. 14.8 Applications of Coordination Compounds
    9. 14.9 Review Questions
    10. Fill in the Blanks
    11. Multiple-choice Questions
    12. Short Answer Questions
    13. Descriptive Questions
  21. 15. Structure and Reactivity of Organic and Inorganic Molecules
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Hybridisation
      1. 15.2.1 Salient Features of Hybridisation
      2. 15.2.2 Important Conditions for Hybridisation
      3. 15.2.3 Types of Hybridisation
    3. 15.3 Bond Polarisation
      1. 15.3.1 Electron Displacement in Covalent Bonds
    4. 15.4 Reaction Intermediates
      1. 15.4.1 Free Radicals
      2. 15.4.2 Carbocations or Carbonium Ions
      3. 15.4.3 Carbanions
      4. 15.4.4 Carbenes
      5. 15.4.5 Nitrenes or Imidogens
      6. 15.4.6 Benzynes
    5. 15.5 Molecular Orbital Theory
      1. 15.5.1 Important Points on Molecular Orbital Diagrams
      2. 15.5.2 Fundamental Steps for Constructing Molecular Orbitals
      3. 15.5.3 Five Basic Rules of Molecular Orbital Theory
      4. 15.5.4 Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals and Type of Atomic Orbitals
      5. 15.5.5 Molecular Orbital Energy Level Diagrams of Homo Atomic Molecules
      6. 15.5.6 Molecular Energy Level Diagrams of Hetero Atomic Molecules
    6. 15.6 Review Questions
    7. Fill in the Blanks
    8. Multiple-choice Questions
    9. Short Answer Questions
    10. Descriptive Questions
  22. 16. Stereochemistry
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Isomerism
      1. 16.2.1 Structural Isomerism
      2. 16.2.2 Space or Stereoisomerism
    3. 16.3 Classification of Structural Isomerism
      1. 16.3.1 Chain or Nuclear Isomerism
      2. 16.3.2 Position Isomerism
      3. 16.3.3 Ring or Chain Isomerism
      4. 16.3.4 Functional Group Isomerism
      5. 16.3.5 Metamerism
      6. 16.3.6 Tautomerism
    4. 16.4 Classification of Stereoisomerism
      1. 16.4.1 Geometrical Isomerism
      2. 16.4.2 Optical Isomerism
      3. 16.4.3 Conformational Isomers
      4. 16.4.4 R–S Nomenclature or CIP Nomenclature
      5. 16.4.5 E–Z Nomenclature
    5. 16.5 Molecular Representation
      1. 16.5.1 Wedge and Dash Projections
      2. 16.5.2 Fisher Projections
      3. 16.5.3 Sawhorse Representation
      4. 16.5.4 Newman Representation
    6. 16.6 Molecular Isomerism
    7. 16.7 Review Questions
    8. Fill in the Blanks
    9. Multiple-choice Questions
    10. Short Answer Questions
    11. Descriptive Questions
  23. 17. Spectroscopy
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Ultra Violet and Visible Spectroscopy
      1. 17.2.1 Principle
      2. 17.2.2 Instrumentation
      3. 17.2.3 Instrumental Design
      4. 17.2.4 Electronic Transitions
      5. 17.2.5 Chromophores
      6. 17.2.6 Auxochrome
      7. 17.2.7 Woodward–Fieser Rules
      8. 17.2.8 Factors Affecting the Position of the λ Maximum and Intensity of Radiation
      9. 17.2.9 Franck-Condon Principle
      10. 17.2.10 Solved Problems Based on UV-Vis Spectroscopy
      11. 17.2.11 Applications of UV-Visible Spectroscopy
    3. 17.3 IR-Spectroscopy
      1. 17.3.1 Basic Principle
      2. 17.3.2 Instrumentation
      3. 17.3.3 Molecular Vibrations
      4. 17.3.4 Factors Affecting Vibrational Frequency
      5. 17.3.5 Degrees of Freedom
      6. 17.3.6 Solved Problems Based on IR Spectra
      7. 17.3.7 Applications of IR Spectroscopy
    4. 17.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
      1. 17.4.1 Principle
      2. 17.4.2 Instrumentation
      3. 17.4.3 Chemical Shift
      4. 17.4.4 Spin-Spin Splitting, Spin-Spin Interaction, Spin–Spin Coupling or Fine Spectrum
      5. 17.4.5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging
      6. 17.4.6 High Resolution Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
      7. 17.4.7 NMR Applications
      8. 17.4.8 Solved Problems Based on Proton NMR
    5. 17.5 Review Questions
    6. Fill in the Blanks
    7. Multiple-choice Questions
    8. Short Answer Questions
    9. Descriptive Questions
  24. 18. Thermal Analysis
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Thermogravimetric Analysis
      1. 18.2.1 Principle of TGA
      2. 18.2.2 Applications of TGA
    3. 18.3 Differential Thermal Analysis
      1. 18.3.1 Principle of DTA
    4. 18.4 Review Questions
    5. Fill in the Blanks
    6. Multiple-choice Questions
    7. Short Answer Questions
    8. Descriptive Questions
  25. 19. Chromatography
    1. 19.1 Introduction
      1. 19.1.1 Chromatography Timeline
    2. 19.2 Classification of Chromatography
      1. 19.2.1 Classification Based on Mobile Phase
      2. 19.2.2 Classification Based on Attractive Forces
      3. 19.2.3 Classification Based on Partition of Relative Solubility of Analyte in Mobile and Stationary Phase
      4. 19.2.4 Chromatographic Techniques on the Type of Support Material Used in the System
    3. 19.3 Types of Chromatography
      1. 19.3.1 Gas-Liquid-Chromatography
    4. 19.4 Chromatography Theory
      1. 19.4.1 Distribution Coefficient or Partition Coefficient (K)
      2. 19.4.2 Retention Time (tR)
      3. 19.4.3 Retention Volume (VR)
      4. 19.4.4 Plate Theory
    5. 19.5 High Performance Liquid Chromatography
      1. 19.5.1 Instrumentation
      2. 19.5.2 Theory of High Performance Liquid Chromatography
    6. 19.6 Review Questions
    7. Fill in the Blanks
    8. Multiple-choice Questions
    9. Short Answer Questions
    10. Descriptive Questions
  26. 20. Solid State and X-Ray Diffraction
    1. 20.1 Introduction
      1. 20.1.1 Crystal Structure
    2. 20.2 Crystal Systems
      1. 20.2.1 Laws of Crystallography
    3. 20.3 Crystal Defects
      1. 20.3.1 Stoichiometric Defect
      2. 20.3.2 Non-stoichiometric Defect
    4. 20.4 X-Ray Diffraction
      1. 20.4.1 Introduction
      2. 20.4.2 Principle
      3. 20.4.3 X-ray Diffraction of Crystals and Bragg’s Equation
      4. 20.4.4 Determination of Crystal Structure with Bragg’s Equation
      5. 20.4.5 X-ray Diffraction Methods
      6. 20.4.6 Instrumentation of X-ray
    5. 20.5 Application of X-ray Diffraction
    6. 20.6 Review Questions
    7. Fill in the Blanks
    8. Multiple-choice Questions
    9. Short Answer Questions
    10. Descriptive Questions
  27. 21. Green Chemistry
    1. 21.1 Introduction
    2. 21.2 Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry
    3. 21.3 Importance of Green Synthesis
      1. 21.3.1 Methods for Green Synthesis
      2. 21.3.2 Applications of Green Synthesis
    4. 21.4 Greenhouse Concepts
      1. 21.4.1 Types of Greenhouse
    5. 21.5 Greenhouse Gases and Greenhouse Effect
      1. 21.5.1 Natural Greenhouse Effect
      2. 21.5.2 Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
      3. 21.5.3 Greenhouse Gas Effect
      4. 21.5.4 Requirements for Greenhouse
    6. 21.6 Carbon Sequestration
      1. 21.6.1 Importance of Carbon Sequestration
    7. 21.7 Why Carbon Dioxide is a Major Problem
    8. 21.8 Review Questions
    9. Fill in the Blanks
    10. Multiple-choice Questions
    11. Short answer Questions
    12. Descriptive Questions
  28. Lab Manual