Chapter 1


2. Henry Ford and Samuel Crowther, My Life and Work, New York: Doubleday, Page, 1922.

3. W. J. Hopp and M. L. Spearman, Factory Physics, 3rd ed., Long Grove IL: Waveland Press, 2008.


5. “Bulletproof Quality Came Only After a Long Struggle.” Automotive News, October 2007; available at

6. Alan Robinson, Modern Approaches to Manufacturing Improvement: The Shingo System, New York: Productivity Press, 1990, p. 54.

7. From Roberta Russell and Bernard Taylor, Operations Management, 3rd ed. For website, see ...

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