Section 1




Figure 1.1 Ecological or energy pyramid, with amount of energy at each trophic level.


Figure 1.2 The flow of energy through a river ecosystem in Silver Springs, Florida. Energy units are kilocalories per square meter per year (kcal/m2/yr). Biomass units represent the dry weight of organic matter (per square meter). The pyramid of numbers is derived from a census of the populations of autotrophs, herbivores, and two levels of carnivores on an acre (0.4 hectare) of a typical grassland. The figures represent number of ...

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